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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central organelle in eukaryotic cells that functions in protein synthesis and maturation, and also functions as a calcium storage organelle. Perturbation of ER functions leads to ER stress, which has been previously associated with a broad variety of diseases. ER stress is generally regarded as compensatory, but prolonged(More)
The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in various regions of the brain. Much less is known about whether TRPV1 receptors affect higher brain functions. In the present study, we demonstrated that TRPV1-knockout (TRPV1KO) mice showed antidepressant-like behaviors in a novelty-suppressed feeding test and(More)
The neurotoxicity of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), one of the most important drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, still remains controversial, although much more data on L-DOPA neurotoxicity have been presented. Considering the well known neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO), the inhibitory effects of EPO on L-DOPA(More)
Autophagy has recently been implicated in both the prevention and progression of cancer. However, the molecular basis for the relationship between autophagy induction and the initial acquisition of malignancy is currently unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that autophagy is essential for oncogenic K-Ras (K-Ras(V12))-induced malignant cell(More)
cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been known to play a pivotal role in neuronal differentiation and neuronal plasticity. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was reported to activate CREB in Rat2 fibroblast cells. To study the roles of LPA in neuronal differentiation, we determined whether LPA activates CREB in H19-7, hippocampal progenitor cells. LPA(More)
Oxethazaine, an over-the-counter (OTC) antacid, is a precursor of phentermine, which is the most abused anorectic by methamphetamine users in Korea. However, no studies have investigated the abuse potential of oxethazaine. Therefore, we examined and compared the consequences of oxethazaine and phentermine treatment on animal models of conditioned place(More)
Liver plays a major role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Under fasting conditions, hepatic glucose production is critical as a source of fuel to maintain the basic functions in other tissues, including skeletal muscle, red blood cells, and the brain. Fasting hormones glucagon and cortisol play major roles during the process, in part by(More)
BACKGROUND Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) has been widely used in many areas, including biomedicine, cosmetics, and environmental engineering. Recently, it has become evident that some TiO(2) particles have a considerable cytotoxic effect in normal human cells. However, the molecular basis for the cytotoxicity of TiO(2) has yet to be defined. METHODS AND(More)
Claudins are identified as members of the tetraspanin family of proteins, which are integral to the structure and function of tight junction. Recent studies showed an increase in expression of claudins during tumorigenesis, which is associated with loss of cell-cell contact, dedifferentiation, and invasiveness. However , the molecular basis for the causal(More)