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Autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the parkin gene. Parkin, a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, is responsible for the ubiquitination and degradation of substrate proteins that are important in the survival of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Accordingly, the abnormal accumulation of(More)
For gene regulation, some transcriptional activators bind periodically to promoters with either a fast (approximately 1 minute) or a slow (approximately 15 to 90 minutes) cycle. It is uncertain whether the fast cycle occurs on natural promoters, and the function of either cycle in transcription remains unclear. We report that fast and slow cycling can occur(More)
Although TP53 mutations have been widely studied in lung cancer, the majority of studies have focused on exons 5-8 of the gene. In addition, TP53 mutations in Korean patients with lung cancers have not been investigated. We searched for mutations in the entire coding exons, including splice sites of the gene, in Korean patients with non-small cell lung(More)
The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on cognition and mood have not been well established. The authors estimated cognitive and mood effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Movement(More)
Although recent studies have extended our understanding of agrin's function during development, its function in the central nervous system (CNS) is not clearly understood. To address this question, zebrafish agrin was identified and characterized. Zebrafish agrin is expressed in the developing CNS and in nonneural structures such as somites and notochord.(More)
The neurotoxicity of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), one of the most important drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, still remains controversial, although much more data on L-DOPA neurotoxicity have been presented. Considering the well known neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO), the inhibitory effects of EPO on L-DOPA(More)
Malignant gliomas are resistant to various proapoptotic therapies, such as radiotherapy and conventional chemotherapy. In this study, we show that selenite is preferentially cytotoxic to various human glioma cells over normal astrocytes via autophagic cell death. Overexpression of Akt, survivin, XIAP, Bcl-2, or Bcl-xL failed to block selenite-induced cell(More)
Although the role of agrin in the formation of the neuromuscular junction is well established, other functions for agrin have remained elusive. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of agrin in neurite outgrowth mediated by the heparin-binding growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), which we have shown previously to bind to agrin(More)
Prolonged seizures during childhood are associated with behavior problems, memory impairment and school failure. No effective treatment currently exists after seizures to mitigate neuronal injury and long-term neurological sequelae for children with epilepsy. We studied the therapeutic efficacy of early-life environment on seizure-induced behavioral(More)
Autophagy has recently been implicated in both the prevention and progression of cancer. However, the molecular basis for the relationship between autophagy induction and the initial acquisition of malignancy is currently unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that autophagy is essential for oncogenic K-Ras (K-Ras(V12))-induced malignant cell(More)