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Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons fire in 2 characteristic modes, tonic and phasic, which are thought to modulate distinct aspects of behavior. However, the inability to selectively disrupt these patterns of activity has hampered the precise definition of the function of these modes of signaling. Here, we addressed the role of phasic DA in learning and other(More)
As one of the two main sources of brain dopamine, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for several complex functions, including motivation, reward prediction, and contextual learning. Although many studies have identified the potential neural substrate of VTA dopaminergic activity in reward prediction functions during Pavlovian and operant(More)
This study tested whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. The authors used structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For 4(More)
Although TP53 mutations have been widely studied in lung cancer, the majority of studies have focused on exons 5-8 of the gene. In addition, TP53 mutations in Korean patients with lung cancers have not been investigated. We searched for mutations in the entire coding exons, including splice sites of the gene, in Korean patients with non-small cell lung(More)
The effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation on cognition and mood have not been well established. The authors estimated cognitive and mood effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Movement(More)
Cholinergic dysfunction is well known to significantly contribute to the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it has not been clarified whether the cholinergic dysfunction is a primary event or a retrograde event secondary to neuronal loss of the cholinergic targets. Analysis of the in vivo neuronal activity of the basal forebrain in the(More)
We investigated whether there exists a hierarchical vulnerability of subcortical structures with respect to the severity of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 236 subjects (179 with AD and 57 with normal cognition) underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The volumes of the five subcortical structures (amygdala, thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus,(More)
BACKGROUND Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. (More)
Animals develop robust learning and long lasting taste aversion memory once they experience a new taste that is followed by visceral discomfort. A large body of literature has supported the hypothesis that basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in the acquisition and extinction of such conditioned taste aversions (CTA). Despite the evidence that(More)
CONCLUSION Moderate hearing loss in young mice caused decreases in cognition associated with spatial working and recognition memories in 6 months. These results provide evidence for a causal relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVES Hypothesized mechanisms to connect sensory and cognitive functions include the(More)