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Recurrent/moderate (R/M) hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes. Although mild or moderate hypoglycemia is not life-threatening, if recurrent, it may cause cognitive impairment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether R/M hypoglycemia leads to neuronal death, dendritic injury, or cognitive impairment. The experiments were conducted in normal(More)
The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of clioquinol (CQ), a metal chelator, on multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55)) in female mice. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell(More)
Hypoglycemia-induced cerebral neuropathy can occur in patients with diabetes who attempt tight control of blood glucose and may lead to cognitive dysfunction. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death is not a simple result of glucose deprivation, but is instead the end result of a multifactorial process. In(More)
The excitatory amino acids glutamate and cysteine are actively transported into neurons from the extracellular space by the high affinity glutamate transporter EAAC1. The astrocyte glutamate transporters, GLT1 and GLAST, are the primary mediators of glutamate clearance. EAAC1 has a limited role in this function. However, uptake of cysteine into neurons via(More)
The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase assembly inhibitor, on traumatic brain injury. Rat traumatic brain injury (TBI) was performed using a weight drop model. Apocynin (100mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space 15 min before TBI. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal(More)
BACKGROUND Although men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease (CVD) show high smoking-cessation rates, similar data for women are lacking. We tested the efficacy of smoking-cessation intervention in women hospitalized for CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS In this randomized controlled trial conducted from 1996 to 2001, 277 women diagnosed with CVD (mean age(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most devastating injuries experienced by military personnel, as well as the general population, and can result in acute and chronic complications such as cognitive impairments. Since there are currently no effective tools for the treatment of TBI, it is of great importance to determine the mechanisms of neuronal(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging for diseases of the small intestine, emphasizing a comparison with CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-four patients who underwent both CT and MR imaging using FLASH 2D and HASTE sequences were analyzed. All patients had various small bowel diseases with variable association of peritoneal lesions. We(More)
Diabetic patients who attempt strict management of blood glucose levels frequently experience hypoglycemia. Severe and prolonged hypoglycemia causes neuronal death and cognitive impairment. There is no effective tool for prevention of these unwanted clinical sequelae. Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline derivative, has been recognized as an(More)
Hypoglycemia-induced brain injury is a common and serious complication of intensive insulin therapy experienced by Type 1 diabetic patients. We previously reported that hypoglycemic neuronal death is triggered by glucose reperfusion after hypoglycemia rather than as a simple result of glucose deprivation. However, the precise mechanism of neuronal death(More)