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The 15,389-bp long complete mitogenome of the endangered red-spotted apollo butterfly, Parnassius bremeri (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was determined in this study. The start codon for the COI gene in insects has been extensively discussed, and has long remained a matter of some controversy. Herein, we propose that the CGA (arginine) sequence functions as(More)
Lepidoptera is one of the largest insect orders, but the phylogenetic relationships within this order, have yet to be adequately described. Among these unresolved relationships include those regarding the monophyly of the Macrolepidoptera and interfamilial relationships of the true butterflies superfamily Papilionoidea. We present two new mitochondrial(More)
We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the(More)
The insect order Dermaptera, belonging to Polyneoptera, includes ∼2,000 extant species, but no dermapteran mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri, compared its genomic features to other available mitochondrial sequences from polyneopterous insects. In addition, the(More)
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the nerippe fritillary butterfly, Argynnis nerippe, which is listed as an endangered species in Korea, is described with an emphasis on the A+T-rich region. The 15,140-bp long circular molecule consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region, known in insect as the(More)
The molecular phylogenetic relationships among true butterfly families (superfamily Papilionoidea) have been a matter of substantial controversy; this debate has led to several competing hypotheses. Two of the most compelling of those hypotheses involve the relationships of (Nymphalidae + Lycaenidae) + (Pieridae + Papilionidae) and (((Nymphalidae +(More)
The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome(More)
We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome(More)
PURPOSE We investigated the effects of proteinuria and renal insufficiency on all-cause mortality in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on cancer staging and cancer-related deaths. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively studied a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. In protocol 1, patients were classified into four groups based(More)
We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed(More)