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Cells with distinct phenotypes including stem-cell-like properties have been proposed to exist in normal human mammary epithelium and breast carcinomas, but their detailed molecular characteristics and clinical significance are unclear. We determined gene expression and genetic profiles of cells purified from cancerous and normal breast tissue using markers(More)
Here we describe the comprehensive gene expression profiles of each cell type composing normal breast tissue and in situ and invasive breast carcinomas using serial analysis of gene expression. Based on these data, we determined that extensive gene expression changes occur in all cell types during cancer progression and that a significant fraction of(More)
The ubiquitin-specific processing protease (UBP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes plays an essential role in numerous cellular processes. HAUSP, a representative UBP, specifically deubiquitinates and hence stabilizes the tumor suppressor protein p53. Here, we report the crystal structures of the 40 kDa catalytic core domain of HAUSP in isolation and in(More)
It is important to process the updates when nodes are inserted into or deleted from the XML tree. All the existing labeling schemes have high update cost, thus in this paper we propose a novel Compact Dynamic Binary String (CDBS) encoding to efficiently process the updates. CDBS has two important properties which form the foundations of this paper: (1) CDBS(More)
A wide array of microorganisms survive and thrive in extreme environments. However, we know little about the patterns of, and controls over, their large-scale ecological distribution. To this end, we have applied a bar-coded 16S rRNA pyrosequencing technology to explore the phylogenetic differentiation among 59 microbial communities from physically and(More)
The ubiquitin-specific processing protease (UBP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes plays an essential role in numerous cellular processes. Mammalian USP14 (Ubp6 in yeast) is unique among known UBP enzymes in that it is activated catalytically upon specific association with the 26S proteasome. Here, we report the crystal structures of the 45-kDa catalytic(More)
Epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging hallmark of cancers. We developed a high-information-content mass spectrometry approach to profile global histone modifications in human cancers. When applied to 115 lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, this approach identified distinct molecular chromatin signatures. One signature was characterized by(More)
Eukaryotic proteasome consists of a core particle (CP), which degrades unfolded protein, and a regulatory particle (RP), which is responsible for recognition, ATP-dependent unfolding, and translocation of polyubiquitinated substrate protein. In the archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, the RP is a homohexameric complex of proteasome-activating nucleotidase(More)
We have tested the hypothesis that multipotential hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells prime several different lineage-affiliated programs of gene activity prior to unilineage commitment and differentiation. Using single cell RT-PCR we show that erythroid (beta-globin) and myeloid (myeloperoxidase) gene expression programs can be initiated by the same cell(More)
TGFbeta signaling controls diverse normal developmental processes and pathogenesis of diseases including cancer and autoimmune and fibrotic diseases. TGFbeta responses are generally mediated through transcriptional functions of Smads. A key step in TGFbeta signaling is ligand-induced phosphorylation of receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) catalyzed by the(More)