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Cells with distinct phenotypes including stem-cell-like properties have been proposed to exist in normal human mammary epithelium and breast carcinomas, but their detailed molecular characteristics and clinical significance are unclear. We determined gene expression and genetic profiles of cells purified from cancerous and normal breast tissue using markers(More)
Here we describe the comprehensive gene expression profiles of each cell type composing normal breast tissue and in situ and invasive breast carcinomas using serial analysis of gene expression. Based on these data, we determined that extensive gene expression changes occur in all cell types during cancer progression and that a significant fraction of(More)
We have investigated the relationship between the birthdate and the onset of differentiation of neurons in the embryonic zebrafish neural retina. Birthdates were established by a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine into embryos of closely spaced ages. Differentiation was revealed in the same embryos with a neuron-specific antibody, zn12. The first(More)
Visual surveillance using multiple cameras has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Correspondence between multiple cameras is one of the most important and basic problems which visual surveillance using multiple cameras brings. In this paper, we propose a simple and robust method, based on principal axes of people, to match people across multiple(More)
The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a poorly understood key event in breast tumor progression. Here, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a model of human DCIS and primary breast tumors. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts and(More)
Overcoming immune tolerance of the growth factors associated with tumor growth should be a useful approach to cancer therapy by active immunity. We used vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a model antigen to explore the feasibility of the immunogene tumor therapy with a vaccine based on a single xenogeneic homologous gene, targeting the growth(More)
Ligand-induced phosphorylation of the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) is essential in the receptor Ser/Thr kinase-mediated TGF-beta signaling. The crystal structure of a phosphorylated Smad2, at 1.8 A resolution, reveals the formation of a homotrimer mediated by the C-terminal phosphoserine (pSer) residues. The pSer binding surface on the MH2 domain,(More)
It is important to process the updates when nodes are inserted into or deleted from the XML tree. All the existing labeling schemes have high update cost, thus in this paper we propose a novel Compact Dynamic Binary String (CDBS) encoding to efficiently process the updates. CDBS has two important properties which form the foundations of this paper: (1) CDBS(More)
We have tested the hypothesis that multipotential hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells prime several different lineage-affiliated programs of gene activity prior to unilineage commitment and differentiation. Using single cell RT-PCR we show that erythroid (beta-globin) and myeloid (myeloperoxidase) gene expression programs can be initiated by the same cell(More)
A handful of tumor-derived cell lines form the mainstay of cancer therapeutic development, yielding drugs with an impact typically measured as months to disease progression. To develop more effective breast cancer therapeutics and more readily understand their clinical impact, we constructed a functional metabolic portrait of 46 independently derived breast(More)