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CD200 is a glycoprotein that is expressed on the surfaces of neurons and other cells. It interacts with its receptor, CD200R, which is expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, including microglia. The interaction of CD200 with its receptor plays a significant role in maintaining microglia in a quiescent state; thus, a decrease in CD200 expression in the(More)
Impaired spinal GABAergic inhibitory function is known to be pivotal in neuropathic pain (NPP). At present, data concerning time-dependent alterations in cell type and cell death in the spinal dorsal horn are highly controversial, likely related to the experimental NPP model used. In this study, we examined the expression of autophagy using a L5 spinal(More)
The maintenance of water homeostasis under pathological conditions is mediated by the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) channel in astrocytes. To clarify the transcriptional regulation for AQP4 under conditions of astrocytic swelling, we examined the role of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5). We evaluated NFAT5 expression patterns after the induction of brain(More)
This study confirms that botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) decreases capsular contracture and elucidates a possible mechanism. Silicone blocks were implanted subcutaneously in 20 mice. The experimental groups received BoNT-A (1, 2·5 or 5 U) instilled into the subcutaneous pocket. After 30 days, periprosthetic capsules were harvested and evaluated. The(More)
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. Although GDF15 is well established as a potent neurotrophic factor for neurons, little is known about its role in glial cells under neuropathological conditions. We monitored GDF15 expression in astrocyte activation after a kainic acid(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we examined the ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced rat neuropathic pain model. SNL-induced neuropathic pain was assessed behaviorally using(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Myelophil, a combination of extracts taken from Astragali Radix and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix, is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of chronic fatigue-associated disorders. Here we examined the ability of Myelophil to alleviate memory impairment in a mouse model. We aimed to investigate whether Myelophil(More)
3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) is suggested to play important roles in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and neuronal cell survival in the mature CNS. Although few studies have investigated the roles of PDK1, little is known about PDK1 changes in glial cells under neuropathological conditions. In current report, phosphorylation of PDK1 was(More)
Pioglitazone (PGZ), a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, is known to regulate inflammatory process and to have neuroprotective effects against neurological disorders. In the present study, we examined the effects of 30 mg/kg PGZ on excitotoxic neuronal damage and glial activation in the mouse hippocampus following(More)
UV-mutagenesis was performed to obtain mutant strains that demonstrate altered production of phleichrome, a secondary metabolite of Cladosporium phlei. Among fifty mutants selected, based on the increased area and intensity of the purple pigment surrounding the colonies, the strain M0035 showed the highest production of phleichrome, more than seven fold(More)