Learn More
Congenitally hypomyelinated shiverer mice fail to generate compact myelin and die by 18-21 weeks of age. Using multifocal anterior and posterior fossa delivery of sorted fetal human glial progenitor cells into neonatal shiverer x rag2(-/-) mice, we achieved whole neuraxis myelination of the engrafted hosts, which in a significant fraction of cases rescued(More)
Pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation depends on transcription factors that also contribute in adult insulin and glucagon gene expression. Islet cell development was examined in mice lacking MafB, a transcription factor expressed in immature alpha (glucagon(+)) and beta (insulin(+)) cells and capable of activating insulin and glucagon expression in(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive(More)
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) commonly arises from islet β cell failure and insulin resistance. Here, we examined the sensitivity of key islet-enriched transcription factors to oxidative stress, a condition associated with β cell dysfunction in both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and T2DM. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of β cell lines induced cytoplasmic translocation of(More)
BACKGROUND Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by(More)
An approach to the problem of autonomous mobile robot obstacle avoidance using reinforcement learning neural network is proposed in this paper. Q-learning is one kind of reinforcement learning method that is similar to dynamic programming and the neural network has a powerful ability to store the values. We integrate these two methods with the aim to ensure(More)
OBJECTIVE Several transcription factors are essential to pancreatic islet β-cell development, proliferation, and activity, including MafA and MafB. However, MafA and MafB are distinct from others in regard to temporal and islet cell expression pattern, with β-cells affected by MafB only during development and exclusively by MafA in the adult. Our aim was to(More)
Cadmium (Cd), a toxic environmental contaminant, induces neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we have shown that Cd elevates intracellular free calcium ion ([Ca(2+) ](i) ) level, leading to neuronal apoptosis partly by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. However, the underlying mechanism(More)
Pancreatic beta-cell-type-specific expression of the insulin gene requires both ubiquitous and cell-enriched activators, which are organized within the enhancer region into a network of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions to promote transcriptional synergy. Protein-protein-mediated communication between DNA-bound activators and the RNA polymerase(More)
Over the course of evolution, eukaryotic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) progressively incorporated domains and motifs that have no essential connection to aminoacylation reactions. Their accretive addition to virtually all aaRSs correlates with the progressive evolution and complexity of eukaryotes. Based on recent experimental findings focused on a few(More)