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Mast cells are effector cells that mediate the allergic response through Ag stimulation of IgE bound to FcεRI. In allergic reactions, cross-linking of the surface receptors for IgE on mast cells results in the synthesis of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13, which are critical for the initiation and progression of the allergic response. Despite the(More)
We examined whether the mGluR1 and mGluR5 were involved in development and maintenance of behavioral signs of non-evoked pain and secondary mechanical hyperalgesia induced by knee joint inflammation. Selective mGluR1 antagonist, (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA: 50, 100, 200 microM/25 microl, n=10 per group) and selective mGluR5 antagonist,(More)
RATIONALE Nociceptin/orphanin FQ has been reported to inhibit capsaicin- and mechanically provoked cough in animal models, but the mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to determine whether nociceptin inhibits acid-evoked cough in conscious animals and to evaluate the mechanism of this effect. (More)
We tested the hypothesis that an ionic current carried by chloride ions contributes to bradykinin (BK)-induced membrane depolarization and activation of vagal afferent C-fibres. In an ex vivo innervated trachea/bronchus preparation, BK (1 microM) consistently produced action potential discharge in vagal afferent C-fibres with receptive fields in the trachea(More)
We addressed the hypothesis that single vagal afferent C-fibres can be stimulated via either the adenosine A1 or A2A receptor subtypes. The effect of adenosine on the nerve terminals of vagal sensory nerve subtypes was evaluated in an ex vivo perfused guinea pig lung preparation using extracellular recording techniques. Adenosine (10 microm) consistently(More)
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is the most potent member of the IAP family that exerts antiapoptotic effects by interfering with the activities of caspases. Recently, XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) and two mitochondrial proteins, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2, have been identified to negatively regulate the caspase-inhibiting activity of XIAP. To explore(More)
BACKGROUND Clustering is a popular data exploration technique widely used in microarray data analysis. Most conventional clustering algorithms, however, generate only one set of clusters independent of the biological context of the analysis. This is often inadequate to explore data from different biological perspectives and gain new insights. We propose a(More)
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) evokes pulmonary reflexes partially by activating vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers. In the guinea pig, vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers arise from cell bodies situated in the nodose and the jugular ganglia. The nodose and the jugular C-fibers differ both pharmacologically and neurochemically, and may subserve different(More)
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) acts as a growth suppressor in various human malignancies, but its expression is elevated in many advanced cancers, suggesting the oncogenic switch of its role during tumor progression. To understand the molecular basis for the growth-promoting function of CAV1, we characterized its expression status, differential roles for tumor growth,(More)
Certain fatty acid amides such as anandamide (AEA) and olvanil are agonists for the transient receptor potential, vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptor, but have been found to activate TRPV1-containing C-fibers in some tissues but not others. We used extracellular recording and whole-cell patch clamp techniques to investigate the effect of olvanil and AEA on(More)