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The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a pluripotent group of cells that gives rise to the aerial parts of higher plants. Class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factors promote meristem function partly through repression of biosynthesis of the growth regulator gibberellin (GA). However, regulation of GA activity cannot fully account for KNOX(More)
BACKGROUND The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is an indeterminate structure that gives rise to the aerial parts of higher plants. Leaves arise from the differentiation of cells at the flanks of the SAM. Current evidence suggests that the precise regulation of KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factors is central to the acquisition of leaf versus(More)
Leaves of flowering plants are determinate organs produced by pluripotent structures termed shoot apical meristems. Once specified, leaves differentiate an adaxial (upper) side specialized for light capture, and an abaxial (lower) side specialized for gas exchange. A functional relationship between meristem activity and the differentiation of adaxial leaf(More)
Diversity in leaf shape is produced by alterations of the margin: for example, deep dissection leads to leaflet formation and less-pronounced incision results in serrations or lobes. By combining gene silencing and mutant analyses in four distantly related eudicot species, we show that reducing the function of NAM/CUC boundary genes (NO APICAL MERISTEM and(More)
Development of seed plant embryos is polarized along the apical-basal axis. This polarization occurs in the absence of cell migration and culminates in the establishment of two distinct pluripotent cell populations: the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root meristem (RM), which postembryonically give rise to the entire shoot and root systems of the plant.(More)
The pattern of plant organ initiation at the shoot apical meristem (SAM), termed phyllotaxis, displays regularities that have long intrigued botanists and mathematicians alike. In the SAM, the central zone (CZ) contains a population of stem cells that replenish the surrounding peripheral zone (PZ), where organs are generated in regular patterns. These(More)
Morphological diversity is often caused by altered gene expression of key developmental regulators. However, the precise developmental trajectories through which morphologies evolved remain poorly understood. It is also unclear to what degree genetic changes contributing to morphological divergence were fixed by natural selection. Here we investigate these(More)
Biological shapes are often produced by the iterative generation of repeated units. The mechanistic basis of such iteration is an area of intense investigation. Leaf development in the model plant Arabidopsis is one such example where the repeated generation of leaf margin protrusions, termed serrations, is a key feature of final shape. However, the(More)
In this work, we investigate morphological differences between Arabidopsis thaliana, which has simple leaves, and its relative Cardamine hirsuta, which has dissected leaves comprising distinct leaflets. With the use of genetics, interspecific gene transfers, and time-lapse imaging, we show that leaflet development requires the REDUCED COMPLEXITY (RCO)(More)
Morphogenesis emerges from complex multiscale interactions between genetic and mechanical processes. To understand these processes, the evolution of cell shape, proliferation and gene expression must be quantified. This quantification is usually performed either in full 3D, which is computationally expensive and technically challenging, or on 2D planar(More)