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Here we show that maternal smoking downregulated, in a dose-dependent manner, cytotrophoblast expression of l-selectin and its TRA-1-81-reactive carbohydrate ligands. Cell islands -- cell columns that fail to make uterine attachments, often more numerous in the placentas of smokers -- exhibited an even greater downregulation of the l-selectin adhesion(More)
—We present a formal technique for verifying the stability of transient responses of power systems. The procedure uses reachability analysis to compute the complete set of possible transient responses starting from a set of initial states, subject to a dynamics specified by differential-algebraic equations. The method is constructive and fully automatic,(More)
— Transient stabilization of power systems in response to large disturbances is a challenging problem of high complexity. The complexity arises from the large number of system states and the nonlinearities in system dynamics which evolve at various time scales. The first contribution of this paper is a two-level approach to multi-time scale modeling of(More)
—This paper proposes a hierarchical control architecture for engaging demand into providing primary frequency response services. The proposed architecture relies on the use of information about accumulated energy for the aggregation of demand capabilities and dissagregation of demand responsibilities. Since the accumulated energy has a distinct additive(More)
The exosome plays an important role in RNA degradation and processing. In archaea, three Rrp41:Rrp42 heterodimers assemble into a barrel like structure that contains a narrow RNA entrance pore and a lumen that contains three active sites. Here, we demonstrate that this quaternary structure of the exosome is important for efficient RNA degradation. We find(More)
The exosome is a large molecular machine involved in RNA degradation and processing. Here we address how the trimeric Rrp4 cap enhances the activity of the archaeal enzyme complex. Using methyl-TROSY NMR methods we identified a 50-Å long RNA binding path on each Rrp4 protomer. We show that the Rrp4 cap can thus simultaneously recruit three substrates, one(More)
Description: This project funded by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) targets modeling, sensing, communications, and control design principles for the evolving smart grid by viewing it as a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). We wish to ultimately answer two key open questions: Is it possible to design sufficiently general CPS standards and(More)