Miles W. Carroll

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The Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is the largest on record, responsible for over 28,599 cases and more than 11,299 deaths. Genome sequencing in viral outbreaks is desirable to characterize the infectious agent and determine its evolutionary rate. Genome sequencing also allows the identification of signatures of host adaptation, identification(More)
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), attenuated by over 500 passages in primary chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF), is presently being used as a safe expression vector. We compared the host ranges of MVA and the parental Ankara strain in CEF and 15 permanent cell lines. The cells could be grouped into three categories: permissive, semipermissive, and(More)
Many tumor-associated antigens are nonmutated, poorly immunogenic tissue differentiation antigens. Their weak immunogenicity may be due to "self"-tolerance. To induce autoreactive T cells, we studied immune responses to gp100/pmel 17, an antigen naturally expressed by both normal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Although a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)(More)
West Africa is currently witnessing the most extensive Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak so far recorded. Until now, there have been 27,013 reported cases and 11,134 deaths. The origin of the virus is thought to have been a zoonotic transmission from a bat to a two-year-old boy in December 2013 (ref. 2). From this index case the virus was spread by human-to-human(More)
BACKGROUND A recombinant, replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing a surface glycoprotein of Zaire Ebolavirus (rVSV-ZEBOV) is a promising Ebola vaccine candidate. We report the results of an interim analysis of a trial of rVSV-ZEBOV in Guinea, west Africa. METHODS For this open-label, cluster-randomised ring vaccination(More)
The dynamics of plasma viremia were explored in a group of 12 simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that had received prior immunization with either nonrecombinant or trivalent (gag-pol, env) SIV-recombinant vaccinia viruses. Three distinct patterns of viral replication observed during and following primary viremia(More)
BACKGROUND Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly lethal condition for which no specific treatment has proven efficacy. In September 2014, while the Ebola outbreak was at its peak, the World Health Organization released a short list of drugs suitable for EVD research. Favipiravir, an antiviral developed for the treatment of severe influenza, was one of(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a reemerging disease. The only available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, is delivered intradermally and confers highly variable efficacy against pulmonary disease. There is an urgent need for improved vaccination strategies. Murine studies suggest that immunizations delivered directly to the respiratory mucosa might be a more(More)
The human oncofetal antigen 5T4 (h5T4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by a wide spectrum of cancers, including colorectal, ovarian, and gastric, but with a limited normal tissue expression. Such properties make 5T4 an excellent putative target for cancer immunotherapy. The murine homologue of 5T4 (m5T4) has been cloned and characterized,(More)