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We have developed a comprehensive, Bayesian, PBPK model-based analysis of the population toxicokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites in mice, rats, and humans, considering a wider range of physiological, chemical, in vitro, and in vivo data than any previously published analysis of TCE. The toxicokinetics of the "population average," its(More)
Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are screening tools for interpreting biomonitoring data. However, the development of BEs brings to the public a relatively novel concept in the field of health risk assessment and presents new challenges for environmental risk communication. This paper provides guidance on methods for conveying information to the general(More)
Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration of a chemical (or metabolite) in a biological medium (blood, urine, human milk, etc.) consistent with defined exposure guidance values or toxicity criteria including reference doses and reference concentrations (RfD and RfCs), minimal risk levels (MRLs), or tolerable daily intakes (TDIs)(More)
Much progress has been made in understanding the complex pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) . Qualitatively, it is clear that TCE is metabolized to multiple metabolites either locally or into systemic circulation. Many of these metabolites are thought to have toxicologic importance. In addition, efforts to develop physiologically based(More)
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a lipophilic solvent rapidly absorbed and metabolized via oxidation and conjugation to a variety of metabolites that cause toxicity to several internal targets. Increases in liver weight (hepatomegaly) have been reported to occur quickly in rodents after TCE exposure, with liver tumor induction reported in mice after long-term(More)
A conceptual/computational framework for exposure reconstruction from biomarker data combined with auxiliary exposure-related data is presented, evaluated with example applications, and examined in the context of future needs and opportunities. This framework employs physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modeling in conjunction with numerical(More)
Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate), a broad spectrum N-methyl carbamate insecticide, and its metabolite, 3-hydroxycarbofuran, exert their toxicity by reversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To characterize AChE inhibition from carbofuran exposure, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic(More)
Chlorpyrifos is a common agricultural insecticide and has been used residentially in the United States until the year 2000 when this use was restricted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). A chlorpyrifos metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) has been found in urine samples collected during exposure field studies. In this work, we(More)
Our interest in providing parameters for the development of quantitative structure physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (QSPBPK/PD) models for assessing health risks to carbamates (USEPA 2005) comes from earlier work with organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (Knaak et al. 2004). Parameters specific to each carbamate are needed in the(More)
trans-Bromuconazole is a chiral chemical representative of a class of triazole derivatives known to inhibit specific fungal cytochrome P-450 (CYP) reactions. Kinetic measurements and delineation of metabolic pathways for triazole chemicals within in vitro hepatic microsomes are needed for accurate risk assessment and predictive in vivo physiological(More)