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A technique for recovering functional synaptoneurosomes containing vesicularized elements of the presynapse and postsynapse into an enriched fraction has been modified to allow for small amounts of starting brain tissue. Single 400 microm rat hippocampal slices were homogenized and sequentially filtered in a 1 cc tuberculin syringe to produce an enriched(More)
This article presents a new approach to designing brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) that explicitly accounts for both the uncertainty of neural signals and the important role of sensory feedback. This approach views a BCI as the means by which users communicate intent to an external device and models intent as a string in an ordered symbolic language. This(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of scapular shoulder movement as a command control source. The focus of this study was on the evaluation of movement signals from quadriplegic subjects as well as on the processing of these signals for use as command inputs to a functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) hand-grasp system. The shoulder(More)
— This paper presents an interface that allows a human pilot to remotely teleoperate an unmanned aircraft flying at a fixed altitude with input only from an electroen-cephalograph (EEG), which is used in this case to distinguish between left-and right-hand motor imagery in the brain. The approach is to construct an ordered symbolic language for smooth(More)
We propose a complementary approach to the design of neural prosthetic interfaces that goes beyond the standard approach of estimating desired control signals from neural activity. We exploit the fact that the for a user's intended application, the dynamics of the prosthetic in fact impact subsequent desired control inputs. We illustrate that changing the(More)
Localization of acoustic sources has been an area of research starting primarily with underwater acoustics. Recently, localization of sources in air has become a topic of interest for automatic detection, surveillance and tracking for military applications. Other application include novel teleconference devices, specifically automatic focusing on the person(More)
Inverse optimal control is the problem of computing a cost function with respect to which observed state input trajectories are optimal. We present a new method of inverse optimal control based on minimizing the extent to which observed trajectories violate first-order necessary conditions for opti-mality. We consider continuous-time deterministic optimal(More)
Photoinduced, copper-catalyzed cross-coupling can offer a complementary approach to thermal (non-photoinduced) methods for generating C–X (X ¼ C, N, O, S, etc.) bonds. In this report, we describe the first detailed mechanistic investigation of one of the processes that we have developed, specifically, the (stoichiometric) coupling of a copper–thiolate with(More)