Miles G Johnston

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Recent work on evaluation of spoken dialogue systems indicates that better algorithms are needed for the presentation of complex information in speech. Current dialogue systems often rely on presenting sets of options and their attributes sequentially. This places a large memory burden on users, who have to remember complex trade-offs between multiple(More)
The parenchyma of the brain does not contain lymphatics. Consequently, it has been assumed that arachnoid projections into the cranial venous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption. However, recent quantitative and qualitative evidence in sheep suggest that nasal lymphatics have the major role in CSF transport. Nonetheless, the(More)
Tracer studies indicate that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transport can occur through the cribriform plate into the nasal submucosa, where it is absorbed by cervical lymphatics. We tested the hypothesis that sealing the cribriform plate extracranially would impair the ability of the CSF pressure-regulating systems to compensate for volume infusions. Sheep were(More)
Arachnoid villi and granulations are thought to represent the primary sites where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is absorbed. However, these structures do not appear to exist in the fetus but begin to develop around the time of birth and increase in number with age. With the use of a constant pressure-perfusion system in 2- to 6-day-old lambs, we observed that(More)
In most tissues and organs, the lymphatic circulation is responsible for the removal of interstitial protein and fluid but the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord is devoid of lymphatic vessels. On the other hand, the literature is filled with qualitative and quantitative evidence supporting a lymphatic function in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption.(More)
We estimated the volumetric clearance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through arachnoid villi and extracranial lymphatics in conscious sheep. Catheters were inserted into both lateral ventricles, the cisterna magna, multiple cervical lymphatics, thoracic duct, and jugular vein. Uncannulated cervical vessels were ligated. 125I-labeled human serum albumin (HSA)(More)
At relatively low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressures, the majority of CSF drainage in 6- to 8-month-old sheep occurs through the cribriform plate into lymphatic vessels in the nasal submucosa. As CSF pressures are elevated, other absorption sites are recruited and these may include transport through arachnoid projections. To test for the transport of CSF(More)
This paper addresses how to provide improved generation capabilities for both spoken and mul-timodal dialogue systems. Recent work on the evaluation of dialogue systems indicates that better algorithms are needed for the presentation of complex information in speech. Current dialogue systems often rely on presenting sets of options and their attributes(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles of arachnoid villi and cervical lymphatics in the clearance of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer in rats. 125I-labeled human serum albumin (125I-HSA; 100 micrograms) was injected into one lateral ventricle, and an Evans blue dye-rat protein complex was injected intravenously. Arterial blood(More)
Impaired aqueous humor flow from the eye may lead to elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma. Drainage of aqueous fluid from the eye occurs through established routes that include conventional outflow via the trabecular meshwork, and an unconventional or uveoscleral outflow pathway involving the ciliary body. Based on the assumption that the eye lacks a(More)