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BACKGROUND There is limited data in the literature related to the microanatomic features of the perforating branches of the vertebral artery. METHODS The 44 vertebral arteries and their branches were injected with india ink or a radiopaque substance and examined under the stereoscopic microscope. RESULTS The perforating arteries were noted to range in(More)
The presence, position, extent, relationships to neighboring structures and size of the human pyramidal lobe were investigated in 58 human post-mortem specimens in order to determine the variability of this structure. The pyramidal lobe is found in 55.2% of cases as a single conical extension of the thyroid gland. It was present more often in male (53.1%)(More)
The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and its branches were examined in 22 human brains after injecting Indian ink or methylmethacrylate. The ACoA branches were divided into the small and the large. Small branches were from 1 to 5 in number (mean 2), and from 70 to 270 microns in diameter (mean 151 microns). Seventy-six percent of the branches originated(More)
We examined anastomoses among the hypothalamic arteries in 14 human brains using an injection technique, microdissection, and a stereoscopic microscope. Five to 22 anastomoses (mean 10.1) were found in all 14 brains on each side, varying from 20 to 280 (mean 71) microns in diameter and from 0.1 to 5.3 (mean 1.52) mm long. A single hypothalamic artery may be(More)
BACKGROUND Very little can be found in the literature concerning the variation of the irrigation area of the cerebellar arteries, as well as the characteristics of anastomoses among these vessels. The anatomical features may determine certain features of cerebellar infarcts. Consequently, we examined the irrigation area of and the anastomoses among the(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite detailed studies of the perforating arteries, their relationships with the leptomeningeal arteries are almost unknown. These relationships can be of great significance during neurosurgical operations. METHODS The arteries of the hemispheres, which ranged in number from 17 to 36, were injected with india ink or methylmethacrylate. (More)
The perforating branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were examined in 30 forebrain hemispheres. These branches were present in all the cases studied, and varied from 1 to 6 in number (mean, 3.1). Their diameters ranged from 70 to 470 microns (mean, 243 microns). The perforating branches arose from the choroidal segment of the ICA, that is, from its(More)
The hippocampal vessels were examined in 25 forebrain hemispheres injected with india ink or methylmethacrylate. There were two to seven hippocampal arteries, which measured 200-800 microns in diameter. The anterior hippocampal artery (AHA), which was present in 88.2% of the hemispheres, most often originated from the posterior cerebral and the anterior(More)
The thalamogeniculate (TG) arteries of 30 forebrain hemispheres were examined. These vessels varied from 2 to 12 in number (mean, 5.7), and from 70 to 580 microns in caliber (mean, 345.8 microns). The average caliber of all the TG vessels per posterior cerebral artery ranged from 700 to 3400 microns (mean, 1972 microns). The TG arteries most often(More)
Anastomoses among the perforating arteries were examined in 50 human brains using injection technique with India ink and gelation, or methylmethacrylate. Anastomoses were not found among the perforators of the internal carotid artery and the thalamogeniculate branches. Anastomotic channels involving perforating branches of the anterior choroidal, middle(More)