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Penestomine spiders were first described from females only and placed in the family Eresidae. Discovery of the male decades later brought surprises, especially in the morphology of the male pedipalp, which features (among other things) a retrolateral tibial apophysis (RTA). The presence of an RTA is synapomorphic for a large clade of spiders exclusive of(More)
The impact of five selective insecticides on the functional response of a potential biological control agent, the spider Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer) (Araneae: Philodromidae), was studied in the laboratory. This spider is the most abundant beneficial arthropod on trees in commercial orchards in central Europe. We expected that selective insecticides(More)
The family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850 is reviewed at the genus level. The family comprises nine genera including one new genus. They are: Adonea Simon, 1873, Dorceus C. L. Koch, 1846, Dresserus Simon, 1876, Eresus Walckenaer, 1805, Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967, Loureediagen. n., ParadoneaLawrence, 1968, Seothyra Purcell, 1903, and Stegodyphus Simon, 1873. A(More)
The ecology of selected species of spiders (Araneae), harvestmen (Opiliones), and the neglected tropical order Schizomida, alien to Europe, is discussed. Their geographic origins and pathways of introduction, by transportation with goods, are similar to other predatory terrestrial arthropods. Occurrence in buildings (synanthropy) is a prerequisite for range(More)
Concepts of spider karyotype evolution are based mostly on advanced and most diversified clade, the entelegyne lineage of araneomorph spiders. Hence the typical spider karyotype is supposed to consist exclusively of acrocentric chromosomes including the multiple X chromosomes. However, our data show considerable diversity of chromosome morphology and sex(More)
Compared with araneomorph spiders, karyotypes of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae are nearly unknown. In this study we investigated karyotypes of European species of the genus Atypus (Atypidae). The male karyotype of A. muralis and A. piceus comprises 41 chromosomes, whereas female complements contain 42 chromosomes. On the other hand, both sexes of A.(More)
The males of invertebrates from a few phyla, including arthropods, have been reported to practise traumatic insemination (TI; i.e. injecting sperm by using the copulatory organ to penetrate the female's body wall). As all previously reported arthropod examples have been insects, there is considerable interest in whether TI might have evolved independently(More)
Spider major ampullate silk is a high-performance biomaterial that has received much attention. However, most studies ignore plasticity in silk properties. A better understanding of silk plasticity could clarify the relative importance of chemical composition versus processing of silk dope for silk properties. It could also provide insight into how control(More)