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BACKGROUND Rotavirus gastroenteritis causes many deaths in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Because rotavirus vaccines have proven effective in developed countries but had not been tested in developing countries, we assessed efficacy of a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe disease in Ghana, Kenya, and Mali between April, 2007, and March, 2009. (More)
A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has recently been documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium). We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African(More)
PCR methodology was developed to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B. One multiplex PCR identifies serogroup D, A, and B and Vi-positive strains; another confirms flagellar antigen "d," "a," or "b." Blinded testing of 664 Malian and Chilean Salmonella blood isolates demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.
BACKGROUND Group A meningococci are the source of major epidemics of meningitis in Africa. An affordable, highly immunogenic meningococcal A conjugate vaccine is needed. METHODS We conducted two studies in Africa to evaluate a new MenA conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT). In study A, 601 children, 12 to 23 months of age, were randomly assigned to receive PsA-TT, a(More)
The oral, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq was assessed for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children in two multi-site, randomized, placebo-controlled field trials; one in Asia (Vietnam and Bangladesh) and the other in sub-Saharan Africa (Ghana, Kenya and Mali). The efficacy results for the Mali site of the(More)
BACKGROUND The greatest burden of group A streptococcal (GAS) disease worldwide is due to acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Safe, effective and affordable vaccines designed to prevent GAS infections that trigger ARF could reduce the overall global morbidity and mortality from RHD. The current study evaluated the potential(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal immunization has gained traction as a strategy to diminish maternal and young infant mortality attributable to infectious diseases. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are crucial to interpret results of clinical trials in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS We developed a mathematical model that calculates a clinical trial's(More)
Encephalitis associated with acute influenza infection is unusual in nonepidemic years. A case of a 10-year-old child with influenza B encephalitis and profound weakness who was treated with oseltamivir is presented. This case illustrates several of the unusual findings associated with influenza infections and the result of treatment of influenza B(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis) in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for(More)
BACKGROUND Prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children is a global public health priority, and determination of the most common serotypes is crucial for vaccine development and implementation. METHODS We performed prospective surveillance for IPD in hospitalized children in Bamako, Mali. All febrile children and others suspected to have(More)