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Chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury (CCI) induces Wallerian degeneration and exaggerated pain-like behaviors. These effects are mediated in large part by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In this study, we demonstrate that systemically administered recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) facilitates recovery(More)
To shed light on the early immune response processes in severed peripheral nerves, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatics analyses of the proximal (P, regenerating) and distal (D, degenerating) nerve stumps on day 1 in the sciatic nerve axotomy model in rats. Multiple cell death-related pathways were activated in the(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation alters OPA1 expression and triggers OPA1 release, as well as whether the uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist memantine blocks OPA1 release and subsequent apoptotic cell death in glaucomatous DBA/2J mouse retina. METHODS Preglaucomatous DBA/2J mice(More)
Neuronal glial antigen 2 (NG2) is an integral membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed by vascular pericytes, macrophages (NG2-Mφ), and progenitor glia of the nervous system. Herein, we revealed that NG2 shedding and axonal growth, either independently or jointly, depended on the pericellular remodeling events executed by membrane-type 1 matrix(More)
PURPOSE The present study was undertaken to determine whether exposure of the sclera to prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) or to the PGF(2alpha) analogue latanoprost acid alters mRNA for matrix metalloproteinases. METHOD Fifteen human eye bank eyes were studied. Circular pieces of sclera were either immediately preserved in a stabilization reagent or cultured in(More)
PURPOSE This study was conducted to determine whether elevated hydrostatic pressure alters mitochondrial structure, triggers release of the dynamin-related guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) optic atrophy type 1 (OPA1) or cytochrome C from mitochondria, alters OPA1 gene expression, and can directly induce apoptotic cell death in cultured retinal ganglion(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) triggers mitochondrial fission and ultrastructural changes and alters optic atrophy type 1 (OPA1) expression and distribution in the optic nerve (ON) of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. METHODS IOP in the eyes of DBA/2J mice was measured, and mitochondrial structural changes were assessed by(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an extracellular protease that is induced hours after injury to peripheral nerve. This study shows that MMP-9 gene deletion and neutralization with MMP-9 antibody reduce macrophage content in injured wild-type nerves. In mice with delayed Wallerian degeneration (WldS), MMP-9 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)(More)
OBJECTIVE Topical administration of latanoprost sometimes induces gradual iris darkening. The present study was undertaken to determine if latanoprost can increase transcription of the gene for tyrosinase, an important enzyme in the biosynthesis of melanin. Results from brown, hazel, and blue irides were compared. METHODS Iris tissue was isolated from 30(More)
PURPOSE Glutamate receptor activation-induced excitotoxicity has been hypothesized to cause retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in glaucoma and to link mitochondrial dysfunction in both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. However, the relationships among elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity, and(More)