Learn More
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. In order to identify miRNAs and to assess their expression patterns, we sequenced over 250 small RNA libraries from 26 different organ systems and cell types of human and rodents that were enriched in(More)
Apelin, a peptide recently isolated from bovine stomach tissue extracts, has been identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan APJ receptor. We established a stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line expressing a gene encoding the rat apelin receptor fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein, to investigate internalization and the(More)
Imaging and pathomorphological studies in multiple sclerosis suggest that axonal injury and axonal loss are playing a crucial role in those with persistent disability and long-standing disease. Although the existence of axonal injury in multiple sclerosis is proven, especially in the zone of active inflammation, the effect of chronic inflammation on the(More)
To ascertain the function of an orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1, a transcription factor belonging to a large gene family that includes receptors for steroids, retinoids, and thyroid hormone, we generated Nurr1-null mice by homologous recombination. Mice, heterozygous for a single mutated Nurr1 allele, appear normal, whereas mice homozygous for the null allele(More)
Anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide) is a novel lipid neurotransmitter first isolated from porcine brain which has been shown to be a functional agonist for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Anandamide has never been isolated from human brain or peripheral tissues and its role in human physiology has not been examined. Anandamide was measured by(More)
Stressful stimuli evoke complex endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses that are extremely variable and specific depending on the type and nature of the stressors. We first provide a short overview of physiology, biochemistry, and molecular genetics of sympatho-adrenomedullary, sympatho-neural, and brain catecholaminergic systems. Important processes(More)
The discovery that all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are present in the central nervous system led investigators to postulate the existence of a local brain RAS. Supporting this, angiotensin immunoreactive neurons have been visualized in the brain. Two major pathways were described: a forebrain pathway which connects circumventricular(More)