Mikko Pitkänen

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Different characteristics of patients and local anaesthetic formulations will influence the spread of spinal anaesthesia. The predictability of the spread of spinal anaesthesia can be improved by altering both baricity of the solution, and the position of the patient during the intrathecal local anaesthetic injection. The role of adrenaline and clonidine in(More)
GraphoGame (GG) is originally a technology-based intervention method for supporting children with reading difficulties. It is now known that children who face problems in reading acquisition have difficulties in learning to differentiate and manipulate speech sounds and consequently, in connecting these sounds to corresponding letters. GG was developed to(More)
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BACKGROUND Quality of life is decreased in patients with hallux valgus deformity, mainly because of pain. Significant improvement is usually achieved by surgery. However, postoperative pain can be moderate to severe for 2-3 days. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of transdermal fentanyl for postoperative pain management after forefoot(More)
PURPOSE Unilateral spinal anesthesia is beneficial in patients undergoing unilateral leg surgery. The direction and the shape of the spinal needle are thought to influence the unilateral distribution of the local anesthetic in the intrathecal space. Therefore, to study the effects of different spinal needles we compared the effects of the Whitacre and(More)