Mikko Mäkelä

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Industrial residue application to soil was investigated by integrating granulated blast furnace or converter steel slag with residues from the pulp and paper industry in various formulations. Specimen analysis included relevant physicochemical properties, total element concentrations (HCl+HNO3 digestion, USEPA 3051) and chemical speciation of chosen heavy(More)
During carbon steel manufacture, slag residues are generated to remove material impurities from liquid metal and thus control the quality of carbon steel. As the utilization of secondary metallurgical slags is not as efficient as those of primary slags, a comprehensive characterization of steel ladle slag was performed. Pseudo-total concentrations of a wide(More)
When the results of the total element concentrations using USEPA method 3051A are compared to the sequential extraction analyses (i.e. the sum of fractions BCR1, BCR2 and BRC3), it can be calculated that the recovery values of elements varied between 56.8-% and 69.4-% in the bottom ash, and between 11.3-% and 70.9-% in the fly ash. This indicates that most(More)
HIIT conducts internationally high-level strategic research in information technology and related multi-disciplinary topics, especially in areas where Finnish IT industry has or may reach a significant global role. HIIT works in close co-operation with Finnish universities, research institutes, and industry, aiming to improve the contents, visibility, and(More)
Construction of biologically and pharmaceutically important indole moieties plays a prominent role in classic organic synthesis and modern catalysis. This role is not only due to the significance of the potential applications but also as a standard to calibrate the efficiency of a given method. Despite the fact that the cycloisomerization of(More)
Hyperspectral imaging within the near infrared (NIR) region offers a fast and reliable way for determining the properties of renewable carbon materials. The chemical information provided by a spectrum combined with the spatial information of an image allows mathematical operations that can be performed in both the spectral and spatial domains. Here, we show(More)
Mixed sludge from a pulp and paper mill was hydrothermally carbonized at 180-260°C for 0.5-5h with the use of HCl or NaOH for determining the effect of acid and base additions during sludge carbonization. Based on the results carbonization was mainly governed by dehydration, depolymerization and decarboxylation of sludge components. Additive type had a(More)
Trace element speciation of an integrated soil amendment matrix was studied with a modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The analysis included pseudo-total concentration determinations according to USEPA 3051A and relevant physicochemical properties by standardized methods. Based on the results, the soil amendment matrix possessed neutralization(More)