Mikko Koskinen

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In stark contrast to other species within the Salmonidae family, phylogeographic information on European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, is virtually nonexistent. In this paper, we utilized mitochondrial DNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA PCR-RFLP) and sequence variation to infer the postglacial dispersal routes of(More)
The phylogeography of an endangered salmonid, European grayling (Thymallus thymallus), was studied based on analysis of 17 nuclear microsatellite DNA loci. In agreement with earlier mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies, phylogenetic relationships of the populations suggested that northern Europe was colonized from two distinct Pleistocene refugia. Furthermore,(More)
The relative importance of natural selection and random drift in phenotypic evolution has been discussed since the introduction of the first population genetic models. The empirical evidence used to evaluate the evolutionary theories of Fisher and Wright remains obscure because formal tests for neutral divergence or sensitive attempts to separate the(More)
Metabolic disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics includes glucuronidation reactions that are catalyzed by the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The most common glucuronidation reactions are O- and N-glucuronidation and in this review, we discuss both, while the emphasis is on N-glucuronidation. Interspecies difference in(More)
Nicotine biotransformation affects the smoking habits of addicted individuals and therefore their health risk. Using an improved analytical method, we have discovered that the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B10, a liver enzyme previously unknown to conjugate nicotine or exhibit considerable activity toward any compound, plays a major role in(More)
An important issue for designing any conservation programme aimed at preserving genetic diversity is estimation of the scale at which genetic structuring occurs. Additional relevant factors include distinguishing whether or not population structuring is expected to be stable as predicted by the member-vagrant hypothesis, or alternatively, whether(More)
Fast and reliable identification of the microorganisms causing mastitis is important for management of the disease and for targeting antimicrobial treatment. Methods based on PCR are being used increasingly in mastitis diagnostics. Comprehensive field comparisons of PCR and traditional milk bacteriology have not been available. The results of a PCR kit(More)
In more than 30% of milk samples from clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis, bacteria fail to grow even after 48 h of conventional culture. The "no-growth" samples are problematic for mastitis laboratories, veterinarians, and dairy producers. This study provides the first investigation of the bacteriological etiology of such samples, using a real-time(More)
Theories on the hydrological history of Lake Baikal, the world's oldest and deepest body of freshwater, and its surrounding great rivers, are currently based solely on geological evidence and are conflicting. Baikal is inhabited by numerous zoogeographical enigmas but their high level of endemism has hindered phylogeographic inferences. We provide a(More)
We analysed variation at maternally (mitochondrial DNA control region sequences) and bi-parentally (10 microsatellites) inherited genetic markers, as well as across 12 meristic characters in 7 populations of Amur grayling, Thymallus grubii, from eastern Siberia. All three data sets were concordant in supporting the existence of three diagnosable,(More)