Mikko I Kettunen

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Primary human lymphedema (Milroy's disease), characterized by a chronic and disfiguring swelling of the extremities, is associated with heterozygous inactivating missense mutations of the gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor C/D receptor (VEGFR-3). Here, we describe a mouse model and a possible treatment for primary lymphedema. Like the human(More)
The lymphatic vasculature transports extravasated tissue fluid, macromolecules and cells back into the blood circulation. Recent reports have focused on the molecular mechanisms regulating the lymphatic vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D have been shown to stimulate lymphangiogenesis and their receptor, VEGFR-3, has been linked(More)
Measurements of early tumor responses to therapy have been shown, in some cases, to predict treatment outcome. We show in lymphoma-bearing mice injected intravenously with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate that the lactate dehydrogenase–catalyzed flux of 13C label between the carboxyl groups of pyruvate and lactate in the tumor can be measured using 13C(More)
As alterations in tissue pH underlie many pathological processes, the capability to image tissue pH in the clinic could offer new ways of detecting disease and response to treatment. Dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique for substantially increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here we show that tissue pH can be(More)
Optimal angiogenic and lymphangiogenic gene therapy requires knowledge of the best growth factors for each purpose. We studied the therapeutic potential of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D as well as a VEGFR-3-specific mutant (VEGF-C156S) using adenoviral gene transfer in rabbit hindlimb(More)
The evolutionarily conserved SLX4 protein, a key regulator of nucleases, is critical for DNA damage response. SLX4 nuclease complexes mediate repair during replication and can also resolve Holliday junctions formed during homologous recombination. Here we describe the phenotype of the Btbd12 knockout mouse, the mouse ortholog of SLX4, which recapitulates(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a hypoxia-inducible endothelial cell mitogen and survival factor. Its receptor VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) mediates these effects. We studied the expression of VEGF and VEGFR-2 in ischemic human and rabbit skeletal muscle by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Human samples were obtained from eight lower limb(More)
Dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique for increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, particularly for low-γ nuclei. The technique has been applied recently to a number of 13C-labeled cell metabolites in biological systems: the increase in signal-to-noise allows the spatial distribution of an injected molecule(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) is an attractive candidate gene for type 2 diabetes, as genes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway are coordinatively downregulated by reduced expression of PGC-1 alpha in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we demonstrate(More)
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is critically required for adipogenesis. PPARgamma exists as two isoforms, gamma1 and gamma2. PPARgamma2 is the more potent adipogenic isoform in vitro and is normally restricted to adipose tissues, where it is regulated more by nutritional state than PPARgamma1. To elucidate(More)