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A theory for calculating the momentum distribution of annihilating positron-electron pairs in solids is presented. To test the theory, momentum distributions are measured by the Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation for several bulk metals and semiconductors, as well as for semiconductor alloys and for positrons trapped at vacancies in(More)
A method describing the calculation of the momentum density of annihilating electron-positron pairs in solids has been developed. One-electron states, which are not perturbed by the positron, are used. The effects due to the enhancement of the electron density near the positron are taken into account by a factor depending on the electron state in the(More)
ERKALE is a novel software program for computing X-ray properties, such as ground-state electron momentum densities, Compton profiles, and core and valence electron excitation spectra of atoms and molecules. The program operates at Hartree-Fock or density-functional level of theory and supports Gaussian basis sets of arbitrary angular momentum and a wide(More)
Atomistic simulations of the chemistry of thiol-gold-systems have been restricted by the lack of interatomic interaction models for the involved elements. The ReaxFF framework already has potentials for hydrocarbons, making it an attractive basis for extending to the complete AuSCH-system. Here, an interatomic potential for gold, based on the ReaxFF(More)
In this paper we report an X-ray emission study of bulk aqueous sulfuric acid. Throughout the range of molarities from 1 M to 18 M the sulfur Kβ emission spectra from H2SO4 (aq) depend on the molar fractions and related deprotonation of H2SO4. We compare the experimental results with results from emission spectrum calculations based on atomic structures of(More)
Using the Corpora of Early English Correspondence, 1600–1800, we analyse the extent to which the frequencies of first-and second-person pronouns are affected by the relationship between the sender and the recipient of the letter, comparing the effect to that of gender. While we find significant gender differences in our data, our results also pose some(More)
A classic example of solid-state topochemical reactions is the ultraviolet-light induced photodimerization of α-trans-cinnamic acid (CA). Here, we report the first observation of an X-ray-induced dimerization of CA and monitor it in situ using nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (NRIXS). The time-evolution of the carbon core-electron(More)
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