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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) exerts a variety of biological responses through specific receptors: three subtypes of the EDG-family receptors, LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 (formerly known as EDG-2, EDG-4, and EDG-7, respectively), and LPA4/GPR23, structurally distinct from the EDG-family receptors, have so far been identified. In the present study, we characterized(More)
The excited states of 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM) and 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylpropane (BM-DBP), the model of the keto form of BM-DBM, have been studied through measurements of UV absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in ethanol at 77 K. The energy levels and lifetimes of the(More)
Dioctyl 4-methoxybenzylidenemalonate (DOMBM) is an effective stabilizer for photolabile 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM). DOMBM is superior to the most widely used UV-B absorber, octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC), at preserving its UV-B absorbance in the presence of BMDBM. The energy levels of the lowest excited singlet (S(1)) and triplet (T(1))(More)
Phosphorescence spectra of nonphosphorescent or very weakly phosphorescent new UV absorbers, 2-methylphenyl cinnamate (MePC), 2-methylphenyl 4-methoxycinnamate (MePMC) and 2-methylphenyl 4-ethoxycinnamate (MePEC) have been observed by using external heavy atom effects of ethyl iodide in ethanol at 77 K. The lowest excited triplet (T(1)) energies of these(More)
The excited states of UV absorber, ethylhexyl methoxycrylene (EHMCR) have been studied through measurements of UV absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra in ethanol. The energy levels of the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of EHMCR were determined. The energy levels of the S1 and T1(More)
The UV absorption, phosphorescence and phosphorescence-excitation spectra of benzophenone (BP) derivatives used as organic UV absorbers have been observed in rigid solutions at 77 K. The triplet-triplet absorption spectra have been observed in acetonitrile at room temperature. The BP derivatives studied are 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (BP-2),(More)
A major challenge of the post-genomic era is the functional characterization of anonymous open reading frames (ORFs) identified by the Human Genome Project. In this context, there is a strong requirement for the development of technologies that enhance our ability to analyze gene functions at the level of the whole organism. Here, we describe a rapid and(More)
Multiscale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations with the real ion-to-electron mass ratio and β value are realized for the first time, where the β value is given by the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure and characterizes electromagnetic effects on microinstabilities. Numerical analysis at both the electron scale and the ion scale is used to reveal(More)
New unstable temperature gradient driven modes in an inhomogeneous tokamak plasma are identified. These modes represent temperature gradient (ion and electron) driven modes destabilized in the short wavelength regions with k( perpendicular )rho(i,e)>>1, respectively. The instability occurs due to a specific plasma response that significantly deviates from(More)