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Although the membrane fusion of spermatozoon and egg cells is the central event of fertilization, the underlying molecular mechanism remains virtually unknown. Gene disruption studies have showed that IZUMO1 on spermatozoon and CD9 on oocyte are essential transmembrane proteins in sperm-egg fusion. In this study, we dissected IZUMO1 protein to determine the(More)
To elucidate the structure of denatured proteins, we measured the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectra from 260 to 172 nm of three proteins (metmyoglobin, staphylococcal nuclease, and thioredoxin) in the native and the acid-, cold-, and heat-denatured states, using a synchrotron-radiation VUVCD spectrophotometer. The circular dichroism(More)
A small GTPase, Arf6, is involved in cytokinesis by localizing to the Flemming body (the midbody). However, it remains unknown how Arf6 contributes to cytokinesis. Here, we demonstrate that Arf6 directly interacts with mitotic kinesin-like protein 1 (MKLP1), a Flemming body-localizing protein essential for cytokinesis. The crystal structure of the(More)
The oligomeric states of bovine visual arrestin in solution were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering. The Guinier plot of arrestin at the concentration ranging from 0.4 mg/ml to 11.1 mg/ml was approximated with a straight line, and the apparent molecular weight was evaluated by the concentration-normalized intensity at zero angle (I(0)/conc). Using(More)
In vivo measurements of dynamical conformational changes in single biomolecules under functional conditions have had a tremendous impact on molecular and cell biology. However, even single-molecule fluorescent resonance energy transfer cannot easily monitor the intramolecular dynamics in cell systems due to shortcomings in monitoring precision. Here, we(More)
To understand how signaling proteins function, it is crucial to know the time-ordered sequence of events that lead to the signaling state. We recently developed on the BioCARS 14-IDB beamline at the Advanced Photon Source the infrastructure required to characterize structural changes in protein crystals with near-atomic spatial resolution and 150-ps time(More)
AIMS Fudosteine is a cysteine derivative that is used as an expectorant in chronic bronchial inflammatory disorders. It has been shown to decrease the number of goblet cells in an animal model. This study examined the effects of fudosteine on airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma. MAIN METHODS BALB/c mice were sensitized(More)
Cytochrome c (cyt c) is a stable protein that functions in a monomeric state as an electron donor for cytochrome c oxidase. It is also released to the cytosol when permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane occurs at the early stage of apoptosis. For nearly half a century, it has been known that cyt c forms polymers, but the polymerization(More)
We investigated the therapeutic potential of a newly developed antifibrotic agent, pirfenidone, to regulate airway remodeling and the development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness after chronic allergen challenge. Administration of pirfenidone after sensitization but during the period of ovalbumin challenge significantly(More)
SKD1/VPS4B belongs to the adenosine triphosphatases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) family and regulates multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis. SKD1 changes its oligomeric state during the ATPase cycle and subsequently releases endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes from endosomes during the formation of MVBs. In(More)