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When accumulation of a malfolded protein in the endoplastic reticulum (ER) is induced by various adverse conditions, such as hypoxia, glucose starvation, and perturbation of calcium homeostasis, cells respond to the stress by increasing transcription of genes encoding ER molecular chaperones, a process known as unfolded protein response. The signaling is(More)
Missense mutations in the human presenilin-1 (PS1) gene, which is found on chromosome 14, cause early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). FAD-linked PS1 variants alter proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein and cause an increase in vulnerability to apoptosis induced by various cell stresses. However, the mechanisms responsible for(More)
Amyloid-beta is a neurotoxic peptide which is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. It binds an intracellular polypeptide known as ERAB, thought to be a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is expressed in normal tissues, but is overexpressed in neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease. ERAB immunoprecipitates with amyloid-beta, and(More)
Emerging data indicate that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) exerts a neuroprotective effect in response to brain injury. Here we examined the mechanism of TNF in preventing neuronal death in primary hippocampal neurons. TNF protected neurons against hypoxia- or nitric oxide-induced injury, with an increase in the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x as(More)
We used immunocytochemistry to locate two calcium binding proteins, calbindin (CaB) and parvalbumin (PV), in the retina of goldfish, frog, chick, rat, guinea pig, dog, and man. The location of CaB depended on the type of dominant photoreceptor cells in birds and mammals. In cone-dominant retinas such as those of the chick, CaB-like immunoreactivity was(More)
Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of a rat novel peptide/histidine transporter (PHT1), which was expressed in the brain and the retina. The cDNA encodes the predicted protein of 572 amino acid residues with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. The amino acid sequence has moderate homology with a nonspecific peptide transporter(More)
The messenger RNA expression of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1-4), considered alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid type, was investigated in rat brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry using oligonucleotide probes specific to each subunit sequence. GluR1-4 subunit messenger RNAs were expressed widely(More)
Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) was identified as a novel gene disrupted by a (1;11)(q42.1;q14.3) translocation that segregated with schizophrenia in a Scottish family. Predicted DISC1 product has no significant homology to other known proteins. Here, we demonstrated the existence of DISC1 protein and identified fasciculation and elongation protein(More)
We have isolated a novel mouse gene, MFH-1 (mesenchyme fork head 1) that is related to the Drosophila fork head and rat HNF3 genes. MFH-1 encodes a distinct fork head domain that is classified into a distinct subfamily. A recombinant MFH-1 protein could bind to the HNF3 binding site. MFH-1 is expressed temporally in developing embryos, first in the(More)