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Recently, structural brain abnormalities as well as functional abnormalities of the brainstem have been reported in autistic children. The authors undertook an analytic study of the brainstem in autistic children by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI scans of 29 autistic children were compared with 15 control MRI scans. The autistic children(More)
To determine involvements of the brainstem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not(More)
Midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of retarded autistic children were compared to those of non-autistic mental retardation patients and controls. We found that the whole brain stem and particularly two of its components (the midbrain and medulla oblongata) were significantly smaller in retarded autistic children and mental retardation cases(More)
MRI was performed for 18 autistic patients, 11 patients with uncomplicated mental retardation (MR) and 18 controls. In autism and MR, and altered left/right relationship of the frontal lobe volume was observed. The altered asymmetry was more severe in autism than in MR. The brain stem was smaller in MR than in the controls, and the right operculum was(More)
We performed volume-selective proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain with a 1.5 T magnet in 28 patients with autism, and compared the results with those from 28 age-matched patients with unclassified mental retardation and 25 age-matched healthy children. Peaks for N-acetylaspartate, choline and creatine, but not lactate, were observed(More)
We carried out serial EEG studies on 12 cases of lissencephaly (6 of agyria and 6 of pachygyria), polysomnograms being recorded in 8 of the 12 cases. Fourteen Hz sleep spindles appeared from early infancy in all cases. They were poorly observed after the age of 1 year, and 5-11 Hz high-amplitude rhythmic activity (HARA) of more than 300 microV appeared(More)
Studies of magnetic resonance images have revealed morphological disorders of the brainstem and cerebellum in autistic children and adults. When we studied development of the brainstem and cerebellum in autistic patients, we found that although the brainstem and cerebellum significantly increased in size with age in both autistic patients and controls,(More)
Recent reports have suggested functional abnormalities of the brain stem in autistic children, and structural abnormalities have also been reported. We obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for 21 autistic children and compared them with 21 control MRI scans. The areas of the brain stem and cerebellar vermis were measured using midsagittal images.(More)
To determine the characteristics of multimodal evoked potentials (MEPs) in childhood-onset dentatorubral-palli-doluysian atrophy (DRPLA) we studied three DRPLA patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials showed reduced or absent brainstem components as well as delayed latencies. In addition, short latency somatosensory(More)
Volume-selective proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the brain was performed with a 1.5 Tesla magnet in 47 healthy children and in six healthy adults. Peaks of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were observed in all cases, but a lactate peak was not observed. In the right parietal region. 1H-MRS revealed increases in the(More)