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How synaptic specificity is molecularly coded in target cells is a long-standing question in neuroscience. Whereas essential roles of several target-derived attractive cues have been shown, less is known about the role of repulsion by nontarget cells. We conducted single-cell microarray analysis of two neighboring muscles (M12 and M13) in Drosophila, which(More)
The effect of contraction types on muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), median frequency (MDF) and mean amplitude (AMP) of surface electromyography was examined in the vastus lateralis of 19 healthy male adults. The subjects performed knee extension both statically and dynamically until they were exhausted. The static contraction was a sustained(More)
We show that high levels of Hedgehog signaling activity are essential for medial-region patterning in Drosophila legs. In mid-to-late third instar leg discs, high levels of Hedgehog signals repress the transcription of pxb, a newly identified gene encoding a transmembrane protein expressed specifically in the anterior compartment. Misexpression experiments(More)
Little is known about the genetic program that generates synaptic specificity. Here we show that a putative transcription factor, Teyrha-Meyhra (Tey), controls target specificity, in part by repressing the expression of a repulsive cue, Toll. We focused on two neighboring muscles, M12 and M13, which are innervated by distinct motoneurons in Drosophila. We(More)
The environment through which cells migrate in vivo differs considerably from the in vitro environment where cell migration is often studied. In vivo many cells migrate in crowded and complex 3-dimensional tissues and may use other cells as the substratum on which they move. This includes neurons, glia and their progenitors in the brain. Here we use a(More)
Communication between pre- and post-synaptic cells is a key process in the development and modulation of synapses. Reciprocal induction between pre- and postsynaptic cells involves regulation of gene transcription, yet the underlying genetic program remains largely unknown. To investigate how innervation-dependent gene expression in postsynaptic cells(More)
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