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Interaction between endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle) is essential for vascular development and maintenance. Endothelial cells arise from Flk1-expressing (Flk1+) mesoderm cells, whereas mural cells are believed to derive from mesoderm, neural crest or epicardial cells and migrate to form the vessel wall. Difficulty in(More)
Mitomycin C (MMC), a known cytotoxic agent, requires cellular enzyme-mediated activation for effective antitumor activity. To study the bioreductive enzymes responsible for MMC activation in tumor cells, we examined the enzyme activities of DT-diaphorase (DTD) and NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase in 13 colon and gastric carcinoma cell lines and then(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly organized multicellular complex consisting of an endothelium, brain pericytes and astrocytes. The present study was aimed at evaluating the role of brain pericytes in the induction and maintenance of BBB functions and involvement of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the functional properties of(More)
The present study was undertaken to confirm that L-type Ca(2+) channels are involved in Ca(2+) entry into osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and to examine the effect of SnCl2, a Ca(2+)]-channel activator, on the intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). High K(+)concentration-dependently raised the [Ca(2+)]i. All of the L-type Ca(2+)channel blockers used(More)
In this study, GABA efflux transport from brain to blood was estimated by using the brain efflux index (BEI) method. [3H]GABA microinjected into parietal cortex area 2 (Par2) of the rat brain was eliminated from the brain with an apparent elimination half-life of 16.9 min. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux clearance of [3H]GABA was at least 0.153(More)
The selective degradation of target proteins with small molecules is a novel approach to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have developed a protein knockdown system with a series of hybrid small compounds that induce the selective degradation of target proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In this study, we designed and(More)
L-DOPA is transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by an amino acid transporter, system L. Recently, it has been demonstrated that system L consists of two subunits, 4F2hc and either LAT1 or LAT2. 4F2hc/LAT1 and 4F2hc/LAT2 show different transport characteristics, while their distribution in the brain has not been determined. To clarify whether(More)
Hypoxia and post-hypoxic reoxygenation induces disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Alterations of the BBB function after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury remain unclear. Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressant, induces neurotoxic effects by entering the brain, although the transport of CsA across the BBB is restricted by P-glycoprotein(More)
In a rat forebrain ischemia model, the authors examined whether loss of cytochrome c from mitochondria correlates with ischemic hippocampal CA1 neuronal death and how cytochrome c release may shape neuronal death. Forebrain ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion with simultaneous hypotension for 10 minutes. After reperfusion, an(More)
Eye-head co-ordination of patients with Parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia was investigated and compared with that of normal subjects. In Parkinsonian patients eye-head co-ordination was of the same pattern as normals, with an accurate and stable gaze. Reaction times for both eyes and head, however, were prolonged. It was also noted that the contribution of(More)