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The covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an essential role in chronic hepatitis. The cellular repair system is proposed to convert cytoplasmic nucleocapsid (NC) DNA (partially double-stranded DNA) into cccDNA in the nucleus. Recently, antiviral cytidine deaminases, AID/APOBEC proteins, were shown to generate uracil(More)
Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) forms a template for the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck HBV (DHBV). Recent studies suggest that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) functions in innate immunity, although its molecular mechanism of action remains unclear, particularly regarding HBV restriction. Here we demonstrated that(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication although the intracellular effectors involved are not determined. Here, we report that reduction of HBV transcripts by TGF-β is dependent on AID expression, which significantly decreases both HBV transcripts and viral DNA, resulting in inhibition of viral replication.(More)
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