Learn More
We isolated the gene encoding a botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) of 1285 amino acids with a molecular weight of 147,364 from the toxigenic bacteriophage d-sA of Clostridium botulinum type D strain South African (Dsa). The BoNT of Dsa (BoNT/Dsa) is composed of three regions on the basis of the homology to BoNT types C1 (BoNT/C1) and D (BoNT/D). The N-terminal(More)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) proteins are interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral factors that counteract various viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by inducing cytidine (C)-to-uracil (U) mutations in viral DNA and inhibiting reverse transcription. However, whether APOBEC3(More)
Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) forms a template for the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck HBV (DHBV). Recent studies suggest that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) functions in innate immunity, although its molecular mechanism of action remains unclear, particularly regarding HBV restriction. Here we demonstrated that(More)
The DNA fragment common to the genes encoding botulinum neurotoxin types C1 (BN/C1) and D (BN/D) was amplified by PCR from the culture supernatant of Clostridium botulinum type C strain 6813 (C6813) that was treated with either DNase I or proteinase K but not from the supernatant that was treated with both DNase I and proteinase K, suggesting the neurotoxin(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. The mechanism by which AID triggers SHM and CSR has been explained by two distinct models. In the DNA deamination model, AID converts cytidine bases in DNA into uridine. The uridine is recognized by the DNA repair(More)
The covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays an essential role in chronic hepatitis. The cellular repair system is proposed to convert cytoplasmic nucleocapsid (NC) DNA (partially double-stranded DNA) into cccDNA in the nucleus. Recently, antiviral cytidine deaminases, AID/APOBEC proteins, were shown to generate uracil(More)
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a major cause of cervical cancer. We previously demonstrated that C-to-T and G-to-A hypermutations accumulated in the HPV16 genome by APOBEC3 expression in vitro. To investigate in vivo characteristics of hypermutation, differential DNA denaturation-PCR (3D-PCR) was performed using three clinical specimens obtained(More)
The region encoding proline-rich units of actA genes was amplified from 24 strains of Listeria monocytogenes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products of 13 strains showed the expected size of 623 bp, whereas those of 11 strains showed a short size of 518 bp. The shortening of these PCR products resulted from the deletion of one proline-rich unit.(More)
Lactoferrin (LFR) plays an important role in the anti-microbial defense through iron binding, lipopolysaccharide binding and immunomodulation. In this study, we demonstrate that bovine LFR specifically inhibits the hemolytic activity of listeriolysin O (LLO) produced by Listeria monocytogenes. The hemolytic activity of LLO was completely inhibited in the(More)
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) proteins are cellular DNA/RNA-editing enzymes that play pivotal roles in the innate immune response to viral infection. APOBEC3 (A3) proteins were reported to hypermutate the genome of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), the causative agent of cervical cancer. However, hypermutation did(More)