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Little is known about the presence of dendritic cells in the human CNS. To investigate the occurrence of dendritic cells in the CSF, paired blood/CSF samples from patients with multiple sclerosis, acute optic neuritis, Lyme neuroborreliosis, other inflammatory neurological diseases and non-inflammatory neurological diseases were examined using flow(More)
The role of antigen-presenting cells (APC) involved in induction of T and B cell mediated autoaggressive immunity in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is poorly understood. We studied the numbers and phenotype of dendritic cells (DC) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) over the course of(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the most valuable tool for monitoring disease activity and progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with presumably autoimmune etiology. Chemokine receptors have been implicated in MS as key molecules directing inflammatory cells into(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) accumulate in the CNS during inflammation and may contribute to local immune responses. Two DC subsets present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are probably recruited from myeloid (CD11c(+)CD123(dim)) and plasmacytoid (CD11c(-)CD123(high)) blood DC. In bacterial meningitis and especially in Lyme meningoencephalitis, numbers of myeloid(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen-presenting cells (APC) that most efficiently initiate and control immune responses. Migration processes of blood DC are crucial to exert their professional antigen-presenting functions. Matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMP) are proteolytic enzymes, which are considered to be key enzymes in extracellular matrix (ECM)(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a subclass of antigen-presenting cells critical in the initiation and regulation of adaptive immunity against pathogens and tumors, as well as in the triggering of autoimmunity. Recent studies have provided important knowledge regarding distribution of DCs in the central nervous system (CNS) and their role in intrathecal immune(More)
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) has a beneficial influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) and has become standard treatment of this disease, though its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. This study examines the effect of IFN-beta treatment on the cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-10; the metalloproteinases MMP-3, -7 and -9 and(More)
Secondary lymphoid organ chemokines have been implicated in chronic inflammation. Their expression in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been studied. Here, levels of secondary lymphoid organ chemokines CCL19 (Exodus-3, MIP-3beta), CCL21 (Exodus-2, 6Ckine, SLC) and CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) were analysed by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from(More)
A role for chemokines as mediators of Th1 cell recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) is probable in MS. Therefore we studied expression of Th1-related CCR5 and CXCR3 chemokine receptors in patients with MS and controls. Patients with untreated MS had elevated percentages of CCR5 and CXCR3 expressing T cells vs. healthy controls (HC) in blood, and(More)
Resistance to BRAF(V600E) inhibitors is associated with reactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling at different levels in melanoma. To identify downstream effectors of MAPK signaling that could be used as potential additional therapeutic targets for BRAF(V600E) inhibitors, we used hTERT/CDK4R24C/p53DD-immortalized primary human(More)