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Little is known about the presence of dendritic cells in the human CNS. To investigate the occurrence of dendritic cells in the CSF, paired blood/CSF samples from patients with multiple sclerosis, acute optic neuritis, Lyme neuroborreliosis, other inflammatory neurological diseases and non-inflammatory neurological diseases were examined using flow(More)
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) has a beneficial influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) and has become standard treatment of this disease, though its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. This study examines the effect of IFN-beta treatment on the cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-10; the metalloproteinases MMP-3, -7 and -9 and(More)
The role of antigen-presenting cells (APC) involved in induction of T and B cell mediated autoaggressive immunity in Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is poorly understood. We studied the numbers and phenotype of dendritic cells (DC) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) over the course of(More)
African trypanosomiasis is characterized by progressive central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Using single and double immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the induction of alpha- and beta-chemokines in brains of Sprague-Dawley rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) and identified their cellular source. The results showed high(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the most valuable tool for monitoring disease activity and progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with presumably autoimmune etiology. Chemokine receptors have been implicated in MS as key molecules directing inflammatory cells into(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) accumulate in the CNS during inflammation and may contribute to local immune responses. Two DC subsets present in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are probably recruited from myeloid (CD11c(+)CD123(dim)) and plasmacytoid (CD11c(-)CD123(high)) blood DC. In bacterial meningitis and especially in Lyme meningoencephalitis, numbers of myeloid(More)
Secondary lymphoid organ chemokines have been implicated in chronic inflammation. Their expression in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been studied. Here, levels of secondary lymphoid organ chemokines CCL19 (Exodus-3, MIP-3beta), CCL21 (Exodus-2, 6Ckine, SLC) and CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha) were analysed by ELISA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are antigen-presenting cells (APC) that most efficiently initiate and control immune responses. Migration processes of blood DC are crucial to exert their professional antigen-presenting functions. Matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMP) are proteolytic enzymes, which are considered to be key enzymes in extracellular matrix (ECM)(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a subclass of antigen-presenting cells critical in the initiation and regulation of adaptive immunity against pathogens and tumors, as well as in the triggering of autoimmunity. Recent studies have provided important knowledge regarding distribution of DCs in the central nervous system (CNS) and their role in intrathecal immune(More)
This study evaluates levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) brain-specific proteins (BSP) in subjects with optic neuritis (ON) who are at high risk of progression to multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty-one subjects had acute ON and 17 subjects with other neurological diseases (OND) served as controls. Twenty-one subjects with ON had white matter lesions on magnetic(More)