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Direct Neural Network Residual Kriging (DNNRK) is a two step algorithm (Kanevsky et al. 1995). The first step includes estimating large scale structures by using artificial neural networks (ANN) with simple sum of squares error function. ANN, being universal approximators, model overall non-linear spatial pattern fairly well. ANN are model free estimators(More)
The use of a nadir altimeter radar with a rotating knife-beam antenna pattern is considered for improved measurements of the sea surface wind and wave parameters over a wide swath. Theoretical calculations suggest the antenna beam rotating about the vertical axis is able to provide wide swath of order 250-350 km. Processing of the signals using time or(More)
The influence of a surface-active substance (SAS) film on the Doppler spectrum width at small incidence angles is theoretically investigated for the first time for microwave radars with narrow-beam and knife-beam antenna patterns. It is shown that the requirements specified for the antenna system depend on the radar motion velocity. A narrow-beam antenna(More)
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