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In neurons, many different RNAs are targeted to dendrites where local expression of the encoded proteins mediates synaptic plasticity during learning and memory. It is not known whether each RNA follows a separate trafficking pathway or whether multiple RNAs are targeted to dendrites by the same pathway. Here, we show that RNAs encoding alpha calcium(More)
Helicases are molecular motors that use the energy of nucleoside 5'-triphosphate (NTP) hydrolysis to translocate along a nucleic acid strand and catalyse reactions such as DNA unwinding. The ring-shaped helicase of bacteriophage T7 translocates along single-stranded (ss)DNA at a speed of 130 bases per second; however, T7 helicase slows down nearly tenfold(More)
In oligodendrocytes and neurons genetic information is transmitted from the nucleus to dendrites in the form of RNA granules. Here we describe how transport of multiple different RNA molecules in individual granules is analogous to the process of multiplexing in telecommunications. In both cases multiple messages are combined into a composite signal for(More)
Dendritic RNAs are localized and translated in RNA granules. Here we use single-molecule imaging to count the number of RNA molecules in each granule and to record translation output from each granule using Venus fluorescent protein as a reporter. For RNAs encoding activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (ARC) or fragile X mental retardation(More)
Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus has a variety of outcomes, from asymptomatic colonization to fatal infection. Strong evidence suggests that host genetics play an important role in susceptibility, but the specific host genetic factors involved are not known. The availability of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for inbred Mus musculus(More)
We previously identified a distinct mutation pattern in the antibody genes of B cells isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that can identify patients who have relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and patients with clinically isolated syndromes who will convert to RRMS. This antibody gene signature (AGS) was developed using Sanger sequencing of(More)
The genes that produce antibodies and the immune receptors expressed on lymphocytes are not germline encoded; rather, they are somatically generated in each developing lymphocyte by a process called V(D)J recombination, which assembles specific, independent gene segments into mature composite genes. The full set of composite genes in an individual at a(More)
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