Mikhail I. Makarov

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We ask how productivity responses of alpine plant communities to increased nutrient availability can be predicted from abiotic regime and initial functional type composition. We compared four Caucasian alpine plant communities (lichen heath, Festuca varia grassland, Geranium-Hedysarum meadow, snow bed community) forming a toposequence and contrasting in(More)
Snow roots are specialized structures recently discovered in the Caucasian alpine snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza. They form extensive networks that grow into snow packs against gravity, most probably to gather nitrogen from snow. Here we test the hypothesis that snow roots are true winter organs, i.e., they should already start growth early in winter to(More)
Mycorrhizal ingrowth collars were used to study the effect of tree species on the seasonal dynamics of carbon dioxide flux from three major sources of soil respiration: (1) plant roots, (2) mycorrhizal hyphae, and (3) microorganisms. Distinct seasonality in carbon transport to mycorrhizae was revealed, with its highest values being observed during the(More)
The soils of the studied area function in different temperature regimes: under the influence of permafrost (Turbic Histic Cryosol and Cryic Eutric Histosol) and long-term seasonal freezing (Albic Podsol). Sporadic permafrost defines the differences in temperature regimes. All soils are characterized by the low production of carbon dioxide (an average of 160(More)
Freezing-thawing of alpine meadow soils results in a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in the contents of extractable organic and inorganic nitrogen and organic carbon compounds, whereas the contents of microbial biomass nitrogen and carbon slightly decrease. The latter are quickly restored in the course of subsequent incubation, but the processes of transformation(More)
Seasonal dynamics of CO2 efflux from gray forest soil have been studied using collars inserted to different depths in order to estimate the contributions and interaction of soil autotrophs and heterotrophs. The depth of collar insertion has proved to have an effect on CO2 efflux only in periods of the highest biological activity. It has also been shown for(More)
A significant fraction of carbon stored in the Earth's soil moves through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and ectomycorrhiza (EM). The impacts of AM and EM on the soil carbon budget are poorly understood. We propose a method to quantify the mycorrhizal contribution to carbon cycling, explicitly accounting for the abundance of plant-associated and extraradical(More)
173 Human activities and production of nitrogen fertill izers have altered the global nitrogen cycle to a greater extent than the carbon cycle [1, 2]. At the same time, nitrogen inputs into various ecosystems, in the form of either fertilizers or atmospheric depositions, lead to substantial changes not only in nitrogen, but also in carbon cycles [2, 3].(More)
209 Isotopic composition of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitroo gen (δ 15 N) is widely used for characterizing the state and changes in ecosystems [1]. Despite of general understanding of ecological factors determining the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in plants and soils, the species effects of plants growing in simii lar environments on isotopes in(More)
335 Methane (CH 4) is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO 2 , and its contribution to the greenhouse effect is 15–20% [1]. The concentration of CH 4 in the atmosphere is determined by two pro cesses: emission from the soil and removal from the atmosphere. Methane is formed mainly in the waterr logged soils lacking oxygen, such as rice paddies,(More)
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