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Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic-relapsing autoimmune disease of incompletely understood etiology. Recent evidence strongly supports an epigenetic contribution to the pathogenesis of lupus. To understand the extent and nature of dysregulated DNA methylation in lupus T cells, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in CD4 (+) T cells in(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease characterized by multi-system involvement and autoantibody production. Abnormal T cell DNA methylation and type-I interferon play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study in two independent sets of lupus patients and matched healthy controls to(More)
Sjögren's syndrome is a common autoimmune disease (affecting ∼0.7% of European Americans) that typically presents as keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia. Here we report results of a large-scale association study of Sjögren's syndrome. In addition to strong association within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region at 6p21 (Pmeta = 7.65 × 10(-114)),(More)
PURPOSE Expression of the proteoglycan core proteins biglycan, decorin, perlecan and syndecan-1, and differentiation related markers of keratins 18 and 20 were examined to determine the origins of the loss of the glycosaminoglycan layer and investigate more fully the altered differentiation of the urothelium in interstitial cystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
Neuropathic bladder dysfunction results from abnormal development of the spine, spinal cord injuries, or diseases such as diabetics. Patients with neuropathic bladders often require surgical intervention such as bladder reconstruction to improve incontinence and prevent renal damage. Tissue engineering with ex-vivo cultured bladder cells has been suggested(More)
Glutamate-releasing synapses are essential in fast neuronal signalling. Plasticity at these synapses is important for learning and memory as well as for the activity-dependent control of neuronal development. We have evaluated the trial-to-trial fluctuations of excitatory postsynaptic currents mediated by glutamate receptors of the AMPA and NMDA types in(More)
NMDA receptor dependent synaptic plasticity was examined in hippocampal slices using a novel pharmacological pairing procedure. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of slices maintained in a low Mg(2+) solution using a stimulus rate of 0.1-0.2 Hz. The NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5) was(More)
Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of autoimmune disease-susceptibility genes. Whether or not these loci share any regulatory or functional elements, however, is an open question. Finding such common regulators is of considerable research interest in order to define systemic therapeutic targets. The growing amount of experimental(More)
The involvement of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) vs. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mediated changes in NMDA-induced long-term depression (LTD) was assessed by monitoring isolated AMPA, isolated NMDA and composite field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) in the CA1 area of acute rat hippocampal slices.(More)
Genetic influence on DNA methylation is potentially an important mechanism affecting individual differences in humans. We use next-generation sequencing to assay blood DNA methylation at approximately 4.5 million loci, each comprising 2.9 CpGs on average, in 697 normal subjects. Methylation measures at each locus are tested for association with(More)