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At present, direct data on risk from protracted or fractionated radiation exposure at low dose rates have been limited largely to studies of populations exposed to low cumulative doses with resulting low statistical power. We evaluated the cancer risks associated with protracted exposure to external whole-body gamma radiation at high cumulative doses (the(More)
Workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in the Russian Federation offer a unique opportunity to evaluate health risks from exposure to inhaled plutonium. Risks of mortality from lung cancer, the most serious carcinogenic effect of plutonium, were evaluated in 14,621 Mayak workers who were hired in the period from 1948-1982, followed for at least 5 years, and(More)
Lung cancer mortality in the period of 1948-2002 has been analysed for 6,293 male workers of the Mayak Production Association, for whose information on smoking, annual external doses and annual lung doses due to plutonium exposures was available. Individual likelihoods were maximized for the two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis and for(More)
Workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in the Russian Federation offer the only adequate human data for evaluating cancer risks from exposure to plutonium. Risks of mortality from cancers of the lung, liver and bone, the organs receiving the largest doses from plutonium, were evaluated in a cohort of 17,740 workers initially hired 1948-1972 using, for the(More)
Bone cancer mortality risks were evaluated in 11,000 workers who started working at the "Mayak" Production Association in 1948-1958 and who were exposed to both internally deposited plutonium and external gamma radiation. Comparisons with Russian and U.S. general population rates indicate excess mortality, especially among females, plutonium plant workers,(More)
Liver cancer mortality risks were evaluated in 11,000 workers who started working at the "Mayak" Production Association in 1948-1958 and who were exposed to both internally deposited plutonium and external gamma radiation. Comparisons with Russian liver cancer incidence rates indicate excess risk, especially among those with detectable plutonium body(More)
At Branch No. 1 of the Russian State Research Center "Biophysics Institute", a registry has been created of workers at the "Mayak" Production Association, the first nuclear complex in Russia. This registry includes 18,830 persons hired at Mayak's nuclear reactors and radiochemical and plutonium production plant between 1948 and 1972. Twenty-five percent of(More)
The cohort of nuclear workers at the Mayak Production Association, located in the Russian Federation, is a unique resource for providing information on the health effects of exposure to plutonium as well as the effects of protracted external dose. Lung cancer mortality risks were evaluated in 21,790 Mayak workers, a much larger group than included in(More)
An analysis of lung cancer mortality in a cohort of 1,669 Mayak workers who started their employment in the plutonium and reprocessing plants between 1948 and 1958 has been carried out in terms of a relative risk model. Particular emphasis has been given to a discrimination of the effects of external gamma-ray exposure and internal alpha-particle exposure(More)
Recent publications on the integration of radiobiological effects in the two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis and applications to radioepidemiological data are reviewed and updated. First, a model version with radiation-induced genomic instability was shown to be a possible explanation for the age dependence of the radiation-induced(More)