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Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. We created a LRRK2 transgenic mouse model that recapitulates cardinal features of the disease: an age-dependent and levodopa-responsive slowness of movement associated with diminished dopamine release and axonal pathology of nigrostriatal dopaminergic(More)
The metabolic activation resulting from direct dopaminergic stimulation can be detected using auto-radiography, positron emission tomography (PET) or, potentially, fMRI techniques. To establish the validity of the latter possibility, we have performed a number of experiments. We measured the regional selectivity of two different dopaminergic ligands: the(More)
The development of biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) is of great importance since diagnosis based on clinical parameters has a considerable error rate. In this study, we utilized metabolomic profiling using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical coulometric array(More)
We demonstrate the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of neurotransmitter stimulation using the dopamine transporter ligands amphetamine and CFT (2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane) as pharmacological challenges. We demonstrate that the unilateral loss of a hemodynamic response to either amphetamine or CFT challenge by(More)
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 64 subjects with Huntington disease (HD), 8 g/day of creatine administered for 16 weeks was well tolerated and safe. Serum and brain creatine concentrations increased in the creatine-treated group and returned to baseline after washout. Serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OH2'dG) levels, an(More)
Several lines of evidence implicate excitotoxic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Transgenic mice with a superoxide dismutase mutation (G93A) have been utilized as an animal model of familial ALS (FALS). We examined the cortical concentrations of glutamate using in vivo microdialysis and in vivo nuclear magnetic(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage may play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). We examined concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (OH(8)dG), a well-established marker of oxidative damage to DNA, in a transgenic mouse model of HD (R6/2). Increased concentrations of OH(8)dG were found in the urine, plasma and striatal(More)
We aimed to investigate oxidative stress biomarkers in a cross-sectional pilot study of 50 participants with sporadic ALS (SALS) compared to 46 control subjects. We measured urinary 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), urinary 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (IsoP), and plasma protein carbonyl by ELISA methods. We also determined if ELISA measurement of 8-oxodG could be(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the baseline metabolic profile (that is, metabotype) of a patient with major depressive disorder (MDD) would define how an individual will respond to treatment. Outpatients with MDD were randomly assigned to sertraline (up to 150 mg per day) (N=43) or placebo (N=46) in a double-blind 4-week trial. Baseline(More)
The pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown and clinical trials have not demonstrated significant benefit. Biochemical characterization of AD and its prodromal phase may provide new diagnostic and therapeutic insights. We used targeted metabolomics platform to profile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD (n=40), mild cognitive(More)