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BACKGROUND Maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in many low-income and middle-income countries. Different approaches for the improvement of birth outcomes have been used in community-based interventions, with heterogeneous effects on survival. We assessed the effects of women's groups practising participatory learning and action, compared with(More)
Primary health care was ratified as the health policy of WHO member states in 1978.(1) Participation in health care was a key principle in the Alma-Ata Declaration. In developing countries, antenatal, delivery, and postnatal experiences for women usually take place in communities rather than health facilities. Strategies to improve maternal and child health(More)
BACKGROUND Women's groups and health education by peer counsellors can improve the health of mothers and children. We assessed their effects on mortality and breastfeeding rates in rural Malawi. METHODS We did a 2×2 factorial, cluster-randomised trial in 185,888 people in Mchinji district. 48 equal-sized clusters were randomly allocated to four groups(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal, perinatal and neonatal mortality remains high in low-income countries. We evaluated community and facility-based interventions to reduce deaths in three districts of Malawi. METHODS We evaluated a rural participatory women's group community intervention (CI) and a quality improvement intervention at health centres (FI) via a(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine trends in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality in migrants to England and Wales. DESIGN Cross-sectional. OUTCOME MEASURES Age-standardised and sex-specific death rates and rate ratios 1979-83, 1989-93 and 1999-2003. RESULTS Coronary mortality fell among migrants, more so in the second decade than the first. Rate ratios for(More)
BACKGROUND The UN Millennium Development Goals call for substantial reductions in maternal and child mortality, to be achieved through reductions in morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and early childhood. The MaiMwana Project aims to test community-based interventions that tackle maternal and child health problems through(More)
BACKGROUND Improvements in preventive and care-seeking behaviours to reduce maternal mortality in rural Africa depend on the knowledge and attitudes of women and communities. Surveys have indicated a poor awareness of maternal health problems by individual women. We report the perceptions of women's groups to such issues in the rural Mchinji district of(More)
Using data from the Longitudinal Study social class patterns in the incidence of breast, lung and cervical cancer in women, and lung cancer in men, for the period 1976-89 were examined. At working ages, 15 to 64, there was very little difference in breast cancer incidence between women in non-manual and manual classes. At older ages the incidence was higher(More)
BACKGROUND In Malawi, maternal mortality remains high. Existing maternal death reviews fail to adequately review most deaths, or capture those that occur outside the health system. We assessed the value of community involvement to improve capture and response to community maternal deaths. METHODS We designed and piloted a community-linked maternal death(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine infectious disease and AIDS mortality among African migrants in Portugal, gender and socio-economic differences in AIDS mortality risk, and differences between African migrants to Portugal and to England and Wales. METHODS Data from death registrations, 1998-2002, and the 2001 Census were used to derive standardised death rates by(More)