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BACKGROUND PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos is essential for pregnancy: PIF modulates local immunity, promotes decidual pro-adhesion molecules and enhances trophoblast invasion. To determine the role of PIF in post-fertilization embryo development, we measured the peptide's concentration in the culture medium and(More)
Preimplantation factor (PIF) is secreted by viable mammalian embryos and promotes implantation and trophoblast invasion. Whether PIF also has a direct protective or promoting effect on the developing embryo in culture is unknown. This study examined the protective effects of synthetic PIF (sPIF) on embryos cultured with embryo toxic serum (ETS) from(More)
There are very few experimental reports on the comparative water transport (membrane permeability) characteristics of ejaculated and epididymal mammalian spermatozoa during freezing. In the present study, we report the effects of cooling ejaculated and epididymal bovine sperm from the same males with and without the presence of a cryoprotective agent,(More)
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