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The kinetic chain approach to shoulder rehabilitation has become a standard of care within sports medicine. Attempting to incorporate the kinetic chain method of proximal stability for distal mobility requires a stable base of not only the lower extremity but also the upper extremity. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to quantify muscle activation(More)
This in vivo controlled laboratory study was performed to evaluate various intra-articular clinical injection regimes that might be less toxic than some in vitro studies suggest. We hypothesised that low-concentration, preservative-free, pH-balanced agents would be less toxic than high-concentration non-pH-balanced agents with preservatives, and that(More)
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