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Intraoperative freehand three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (3D-US) has been proposed as a noninvasive method for registering bones to a preoperative computed tomography image or computer-generated bone model during computer-aided orthopedic surgery (CAOS). In this technique, an US probe is tracked by a 3-D position sensor and acts as a percutaneous device(More)
A new computer-based navigation system for spinal surgery has been designed. This was achieved by combining intraoperative fluoroscopy-based imaging using conventional C-arm technology with free-hand surgical navigation principles. Modules were developed to automate digital X-ray image registration. This is in contrast to existing computed tomography- (CT)(More)
Statistical shape modelling potentially provides a powerful tool for generating patient-specific, 3D representations of bony anatomy for computer-aided orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) without the need for a preoperative CT scan. Furthermore, freehand 3D ultrasound (US) provides a non-invasive method for digitising bone surfaces in the operating theatre that(More)
BACKGROUND There is a need to develop and validate a method for establishing cup orientation that is patient specific and independent of the anterior pelvic plane. It is our hypothesis that the transverse acetabular ligament and acetabular labrum can be used to do this. The objective of this study is to define the orientation of the plane formed by the(More)
The objective of this research was to determine whether a fast 3-dimensional (3-D) gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence could be used to acquire images suitable for image guided surgery of the spine. The main difficulty with MRI is that inhomogeneities in the static magnetic field lead to geometric distortions in the images. We used a(More)
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative fluoroscopy is a valuable tool for visualizing underlying bone and surgical tool positions in orthopedic procedures. Disadvantages of this technology include the need for continued radiation exposure for visual control, and cumbersome means of alignment. The purpose of this article was to highlight a new concept for a(More)
STUDY DESIGN Comparison of the radiation dose between the traditional fluoroscopic approach and computed tomography (CT)-based computer-assisted surgery for pedicle screw placement was determined. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the radiation dose delivered by fluoroscopy-controlled pedicle screw placement versus insertion guided by computer. To define the CT(More)
A method is presented for the rigid registration of tracked B-mode ultrasound images to a CT volume of a femur and pelvis. This registration can allow tracked surgical instruments to be aligned with the CT image or an associated preoperative plan. Our method is fully automatic and requires no manual segmentation of either the ultrasound images or the CT(More)
Spastic muscles about the hip cause subluxation, dislocation, and lead to acetabular dysplasia. Spastic hip disease occurs when the muscles about the hip exert forces that are too high or in the wrong direction or both. To determine the role of the hip forces in the progression of spastic hip disease and the effect of both muscle-lengthening and bony(More)
Many surgical computer-assisted systems use mechanical axis identification as a reference for their computations. The goal of this study was to compare three methods to determine the location of the distal point of the tibial mechanical axis, based on percutaneous digitization of definite anatomical landmarks. In particular, we evaluated the accuracy of the(More)