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The current investigation assessed the relative benefits of a massed vs an expanding-spaced exposure schedule. The study was a 2 (distribution of sessions) x 3 (assessment occasion) design, in which two spider-fearful groups (N = 31) were compared across three different occasions: pre-training, post-training, and follow-up. Four exposure trials were(More)
The current investigation assessed the relative treatment benefits of persistence with one specific stimulus vs exposure to multiple versions of a stimulus. The study was a 2 (type of stimulus) x 3 (assessment occasion) design, in which two spider-fearful groups (N = 28) were compared across three different occasions: pre-treatment, post-treatment, and(More)
BACKGROUND There is some controversy but growing evidence that childhood onset bipolar disorder may be more prevalent and run a more difficult course in the United States than some European countries. METHODS We update and synthesize course of illness data from more than 960 outpatients with bipolar disorder (average age 40) from 4 sites in the U.S. and 3(More)
OBJECTIVE Early-onset bipolar (BP) disorder and other poor prognosis characteristics are more prevalent in patients from the United States than from the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated as Europe). We explored the impact of parental loading for affective illness on onset and other characteristics of BP disorder. METHOD Parental history for unipolar(More)
This study compared two components of a cognitive-behavioural treatment for panic disorder. Thirty-eight individuals with panic disorder and agoraphobia were randomly assigned to (a) cognitive restructuring, interoceptive exposure (i.e. repeated exposure to feared bodily sensations) and in vivo exposure to agoraphobic situations; or (b) cognitive(More)
OBJECTIVE The long-term impact of prior antidepressant exposure on the subsequent course of bipolar illness remains controversial. METHOD 139 outpatients (mean age, 42 years) with bipolar I disorder diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria had a detailed retrospective examination of their prior course of illness on the National Institute of Mental Health Life Chart(More)
Increased early-onset bipolar illness was seen in the US compared with the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated here as Europe), but other clinical characteristics, medication use, and treatment response have not been systematically explored. Outpatients with bipolar disorder were treated naturalistically and followed prospectively at four sites in the US(More)
In this study, patients with panic disorder (PD) who suffered nocturnal panic (NP) attacks were compared with PD patients who never experienced NP attacks and healthy controls. Three tasks were chosen to evaluate attention to cardiac cues, reactivity to induction of respiratory cues, and reactivity to relaxation cues. Relative to healthy controls, PD groups(More)
Considerable data suggest that compared to some European countries, in the U.S. there are more childhood onset bipolar disorders, more adverse courses of illness, and greater treatment resistance. Psychosocial variables related to these findings have not been adequately explored. Therefore we analyzed psychosocial stressors in three time domains: childhood;(More)
OBJECTIVE A role for childhood adversity in the development of numerous medical conditions in adults has been described in the general population, but has not been examined in patients with bipolar disorder who have multiple medical comorbidities which contribute to their premature mortality. METHODS More than 900 outpatients (average age 41) with bipolar(More)