Mike R Wages

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Titanium dioxide nanomaterials (nano-TiO(2) ) exhibit stronger photochemical oxidation/reduction capacity compared with their bulk counterparts, but the effectiveness of nano-TiO(2) interaction with ultraviolet (UV) light strongly depends on particle size. In this study, the dependence of nano-TiO(2) toxicity on particle size and interaction with UV light(More)
It has been suggested that Xenopus laevis is less sensitive than other amphibians to some chemicals, and therefore, that the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) may have limited use in risk assessments for other amphibians. However, comparisons are based mostly on results of FETAX, which emphasizes embryos. Larval X. laevis may be more sensitive(More)
The objectives of this study were to quantify uptake and developmental effects of zinc oxide nanomaterials (nano-ZnO) on Xenopus laevis throughout the metomormosis process. To accomplish this, X. laevis were exposed to aqueous suspensions of 40-100 nm nano-ZnO beginning in-ovo and proceeding through metamorphosis. Nanomaterials were dispersed via sonication(More)
Metal oxide nanomaterials have exhibited toxicity to a variety of aquatic organisms, especially microbes and invertebrates. To date, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of metal oxide nanomaterials on aquatic vertebrates. Therefore, this study examined effects of ZnO, TiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), and CuO nanomaterials (20-100 nm) on amphibians utilizing the Frog(More)
Previous work indicates that CRF administration inhibits visually guided feeding in amphibians. We used the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis to examine the hypothesis that CRF acts as a neurotransmitter in the optic tectum, the major brain area integrating the visual and premotor pathways regulating visually guided feeding in anurans. Reverse(More)
Metal oxide nanoparticles, such as copper oxide (CuO), are mass produced for use in a variety of products like coatings and ceramics. Acute exposure to CuO nanoparticles has caused toxicity to many aquatic organisms, yet there is no information on the effect of prolonged CuO nanomaterial exposures. This study examined effects of chronic exposure to CuO(More)
This study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of uptake and elimination of perchlorate in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Perchlorate--an oxidizer used in solid fuel rockets, fireworks, and illuminating munitions--has been shown to effect thyroid function, causing hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. For the(More)
UNLABELLED Spea multiplicata (New Mexico spadefoot toad) larvae were exposed to 60, 110, and 1000 microg L(-1) perchlorate dissolved in natural surface water to determine risks associated with perchlorate exposure in desert-adapted anurans. Hind- and forelimb development and tail resorption were measured to identify effects of perchlorate exposure. No(More)
Chlorothalonil is a broad spectrum fungicide widely used in agricultural and urban environments, yet little is known regarding its effects on amphibians. We examined effects of chlorothalonil on growth, malformations, and mortality in embryos and larvae of Xenopus laevis and Spea multiplicata, and assessed variation in sensitivity among aquatic organisms(More)
Fullerene (C(60)), with its unique physical properties and nanometer size, has been mass-produced for many applications in recent decades. The increased likelihood of direct release into the environment has raised interest in understanding both the environmental fate and corresponding biological effects of fullerenes to living organisms. Because few studies(More)