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This article describes and discusses some commonly used single-case experimental designs, including reversal and non-reversal designs. The A-B-A-B design is recommended for use when reversal designs can be used and when the patient's treatment phase needs to be maintained. The B-A-B design is used in situations when studying an intervention or treatment(More)
Currently considerable emphasis is placed on the promotion of person-centred care, which has become a watchword for good practice. This paper takes a constructively critical look at some of the assumptions underpinning person-centredness, and suggests that a relationship-centred approach to care might be more appropriate. A framework describing the(More)
The need for a functioning system of continuing professional education (CPE) in nursing, midwifery and health visiting has received increased attention in recent years. However, whilst the literature describes a number of benefits, detailed empirical studies have been limited. There is, in particular, a dearth of information on nurses' perceptions of the(More)
This paper considers the potential outcomes, both positive and negative, of continuing professional development from the perspectives of practitioners and managers. Following a consideration of the literature it draws upon data collected during a 3-year evaluation of the English National Board Framework and Higher Award to highlight divergent views and(More)
In recent years Rutter's Malaise Inventory has been used increasingly to measure levels of stress among those who care for people with dependency needs. Although there has been an element of dispute in the literature about the unidimensional nature of the scale, later work (Bebbington and Quine 1987) tends to suggest that Malaise Inventory scores can be(More)
AIM This paper is a report of a study to identify factors influencing advanced practice nurses' contribution to promoting evidence-based practice among front-line nurses. BACKGROUND Despite widespread recognition that care should be evidence-based, nurses experience challenges implementing evidence-based practice. As opinion leaders, advanced practice(More)
Supplemented by a case illustration, findings from a study in Wales are reported for the first time from the application of two new instruments for measuring rewards and stresses among family caregivers. The paper takes as its starting point a critique of models of caregiving which emphasize instrumental and pathological dimensions. Findings suggest that(More)
Admission to a nursing home is a major life event for both older people and family carers. Despite a policy of community care in both the UK and the US, entry to nursing homes will be an increasingly common event. Family carers are often the key decision makers but little is known about their experience of placement, especially adjustment after the event.(More)
This article, the first in a two-part series, considers a number of factors that influence quality of life in older age. It highlights the tensions between objective and subjective dimensions regarding the quality of life. It emphasizes the differences between those definitions used by professionals and those employed by older people themselves. The authors(More)
This paper considers placing a relative in a nursing home from a carer's perspective. A largely structured, interviewer-administered, questionnaire survey was conducted with 48 carers in the United Kingdom and 54 carers in the United States of America. While the data highlight differences between the two countries, shared experiences emerge which suggest(More)