Mike M. Chow

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Most of existing visualization applications use 3D geometry as their basic rendering primitive. As users demand more complex datasets, the memoryrequirements for retrieving and storing large 3D models are becoming excessive. In addition, the current 3D rendering hardware is facing a large memory bus bandwidth bottleneck at the processor to graphics pipeline(More)
The three-dimensional structure of poliovirus has been determined at 2.9 A resolution by x-ray crystallographic methods. Each of the three major capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, and VP3) contains a "core" consisting of an eight-stranded antiparallel beta barrel with two flanking helices. The arrangement of beta strands and helices is structurally similar and(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the Sabin strain of type 3 poliovirus has been determined at 2.4 A resolution. Significant structural differences with the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus are confined to loops and terminal extensions of the capsid proteins, occur in all of the major antigenic sites of the virion and typically involve insertions,(More)
Antisera were raised against peptide sequences that are normally internal in the poliovirus virion. These antisera contain neutralizing activity, but this neutralizing activity is dependent on coincubation of the virus and antisera at 37 degrees C. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that the neutralization is due to exposure of these normally internal(More)
We have obtained evidence that poliovirus and other picornavirus particles are specifically modified by having myristic acid covalently bound to a capsid protein. The electron density map of poliovirus confirms the position of the myristate molecule and defines its location in the virus particle. Analogies with other myristylated proteins suggest that the(More)
Antigenic mutants of poliovirus (Sabin strain, serotype 1) were isolated by the resistance of the virus to anti-Sabin neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The amino acid replacements within the capsid protein sequence causing the altered antigenicity were identified for each of 63 isolates. The mutations cluster into distinct nonoverlapping peptide segments(More)
During the entry of poliovirus into cells, a conformational transition occurs within the virion that is dependent upon its binding to the cell surface receptor. This conformational rearrangement generates an altered particle of 135S, results in the extrusion of capsid protein VP4 and the amino terminus of VP1 from the virion interior, and leads to the(More)
When poliovirus attaches to its receptor or is heated in hypotonic buffers, the virion undergoes an irreversible conformational transition from the native 160 S (or N) particle to the 135 S (or A) particle, which is believed to mediate cell entry. The first-order rate constants for the thermally induced transition have been measured as a function of(More)
Peptides from different regions of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 were synthesized. Antibodies raised against these peptides in rabbits and rats recognized the cognate peptides and denatured VP1. Peptides from four regions of VP1 generated antisera with neutralizing titers specifically against poliovirus type 1. Antisera against all other regions(More)
A major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response is induced in BALB/c mice upon immunization with poliovirus serotype 1 (Mahoney strain). A similar class I-restricted response is also induced upon immunization with purified VP1 capsid proteins. Thus, poliovirus-specific MHC class I CTL responses can be(More)