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Cultivation of genetically modified crops is presently based largely on four crops containing few transgenes and grown in four countries. This will soon change and pose new challenges for risk assessment. A more structured approach that is as generic as possible is advocated to study consequences of gene flow. Hazards should be precisely defined and(More)
Measures blocking hybridization would prevent or reduce biotic or environmental change caused by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives. The efficacy of any such measure depends on hybrid numbers within the legislative region over the life-span of the GM cultivar. We present a national assessment of hybridization between rapeseed(More)
Land plants have had the reputation of being problematic for DNA barcoding for two general reasons: (i) the standard DNA regions used in algae, animals and fungi have exceedingly low levels of variability and (ii) the typically used land plant plastid phylogenetic markers (e.g. rbcL, trnL-F, etc.) appear to have too little variation. However, no one has(More)
Similar to other metazoan pathogens, Schistosoma mansoni undergoes transcriptional and developmental regulation during its complex lifecycle and host interactions. DNA methylation as a mechanism to control these processes has, to date, been discounted in this parasite. Here we show the first evidence for cytosine methylation in the S. mansoni genome.(More)
High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis exploits the reduced thermal stability of DNA fragments that contain base mismatches to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, the capacity of HRM to reveal other features of DNA chemistry remains unexplored. DNA methylation plays a key role in regulating gene expression and is essential for normal(More)
Epigenetic modification of the genome via cytosine methylation is a dynamic process that responds to changes in the growing environment. This modification can also be heritable. The combination of both properties means that there is the potential for the life experiences of the parental generation to modify the methylation profiles of their offspring and so(More)
Increasing crop production at a time of rapid climate change represents the greatest challenge facing contemporary agricultural research. Our understanding of the genetic control of yield derives from controlled field experiments designed to minimize environmental variance. In spite of these efforts there is substantial residual variability among plants(More)
High resolution melting (HRM) can detect and quantify the presence of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA samples, but the ability of HRM to diagnose other DNA modifications remains unexplored. The DNA bases N6-methyladenine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine occur across almost all phyla. While their function remains controversial, their presence perturbs DNA(More)
Pollen-mediated movement of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) into wild relatives will be avoided if chloroplasts are maternally transmitted. We assess the probability of chloroplast exchange between conventional oilseed rape and wild Brassica rapa to model the future behavior of transplastomic cultivars. Primers specific to cpDNA(More)