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The Sun moves through the local interstellar medium, continuously emitting ionized, supersonic solar wind plasma and carving out a cavity in interstellar space called the heliosphere. The recently launched Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft has completed its first all-sky maps of the interstellar interaction at the edge of the heliosphere by(More)
The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has obtained all-sky images of energetic neutral atoms emitted from the heliosheath, located between the solar wind termination shock and the local interstellar medium (LISM). These flux maps reveal distinct nonthermal (0.2 to 6 kilo-electron volts) heliosheath proton populations with spectral signatures ordered(More)
The Medium Energy Neutral Atom (MENA) imager was developed in response to the Imaging from the Magnetopause to the Aurora for Global Exploration (IMAGE) requirement to produce images of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the energy range from 1 to 30 keV. These images will be used to infer characteristics of magnetospheric ion distributions. The MENA imager(More)
Measurement of energetic neutral atoms fluxes in space requires efficient suppression of exceptionally strong background extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and UV radiation. Diffraction filters make it possible to separate (transmit) charged and neutral particles from the background radiation (which would be suppressed). Recently developed freestanding transmission(More)
[1] The first all‐sky maps of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) exhibited smoothly varying, globally distributed flux and a narrow " ribbon " of enhanced ENA emissions. In this study we compare the second set of sky maps to the first in order to assess the possibility of temporal changes over the 6 months between(More)
Simulations of energetic neutral atom (ENA) maps predict flux magnitudes that are, in some cases, similar to those observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft, but they miss the ribbon. Our model of the heliosphere indicates that the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field (B(LISM)) is transverse to the line of sight (LOS) along(More)
The neutral hydrogen and proton densities of the local interstellar cloud are still not well known even after many decades of space research. There is, however, a lot of diagnostic data available to investigate these parameters. We have used one such data set, the Pioneer 10 (P10) Lyman Alpha data obtained between the heliocentric distances 20 to 45 AU, to(More)
The Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM) neutral hydrogen and proton densities are still not precisely known even after three decades of deep space research and the existence of the EUV and other diagnostic data obtained by Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2 and other spacecraft. The EUV data interpretation, in particular, has suffered because of inadequate(More)
ogy. In the experiment, an excited electronic state of Li2 was "pumped" by a broadband, phase-modified femtosecond laser pulse into a superposition of two rotational states. The resulting wavepacket was monitored by a second, time-delayed "probe" pulse. Both pulses can have carefully shaped phases (created with the help of simple microscope coverslips and(More)