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Automatic protocol reverse engineering has recently received significant attention due to its importance to many security applications. However, previous methods are all limited in analyzing only plain-text communications wherein the exchanged messages are not encrypted. In this paper, we propose ReFormat, a system that aims at deriving the message format(More)
Virtual machine (VM) introspection is a powerful technique for determining the specific aspects of guest VM execution from outside the VM. Unfortunately, existing introspection solutions share a common questionable assumption. This assumption is embodied in the expectation that original kernel data structures are respected by the untrusted guest and thus(More)
Experimental studies assessing climatic effects on ecological communities have typically applied static warming treatments. Although these studies have been informative, they have usually failed to incorporate either current or predicted future, patterns of variability. Future climates are likely to include extreme events which have greater impacts on(More)
Consistent with the goals of a comprehensive carbohydrate sequencing strategy, we extend earlier reports to include the characterization of structural (constitutional) isomers. Protocols were developed around ion trap instrumentation providing sequential mass spectrometry (MSn) and supported with automation and related computational tools. These strategies(More)
Before we can draw up our plan we need to first look at learning itself, and be aware that a number of different learning styles exist which can influence our choice of appropriate training.